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The angry for Aachen was fierce. American planes and accoutrements formed the Nazi defenses for days. Tanks afresh formed into the attenuated streets of the age-old city, the administrative bench of Charlemagne, which Hitler had ordered dedicated at all costs. Bloody building-to-building action ensued until, finally, on October 21, 1944, Aachen became the aboriginal German burghal to abatement into Allied hands.



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Rubble still chock-full the streets back U.S. Army Maj. Floyd W. Hough and two of his men accustomed in aboriginal November. “The burghal appears to be 98% destroyed,” Hough wrote in a announcement to Washington. A short, austere man of 46 with abbreviating red beard and wire-rimmed glasses, Hough had a amount in noncombatant engineering from Cornell, and afore the war he led analysis expeditions in the American West for the U.S. government and charted the rainforests of South America for oil companies. Now he was the baton of a advancing intelligence aggregation wielding appropriate dejected passes, issued by Supreme Address Allied Expeditionary Force, that accustomed Hough and his aggregation to move advisedly in the action zone. Their mission was such a anxiously attentive abstruse that one affiliate afterwards recalled he was told not to accessible the envelope absolute his orders until two hours afterwards his alike ancient for Europe.

In Aachen, their ambition was a library.



HOUGHTEAM, as the assemblage was known, was fabricated up of 19 anxiously alleged individuals. Four were awful accomplished civilians: an engineer, a geographer who had formed as a map babysitter at the University of Chicago, a linguist who batten bristles languages, and the active son of an arresting Kentucky ancestors who’d developed up mostly in Europe as the son of a brigadier accepted acquaint to assorted capitals as a advancing attaché. There were additionally ten enlisted men. One was a Japanese analyst on accommodation from the Office of Cardinal Services, the spy bureau forerunner to the CIA. Others had been through the abstruse Advancing Intelligence Training Center at Affected Ritchie, Maryland. Amidst the Ritchie Boys, as they were known, were European immigrants who had fled to the Affiliated States to escape Nazi persecution. At Affected Ritchie they accustomed training in claiming and added cerebral operations. Their job was to catechism European civilians about the movement of adversary troops, construe captured abstracts and catechize prisoners of war. For the refugees amidst them, it was a adventitious to advantage their accent abilities and cultural acquaintance to defeat the adversary that had uprooted their lives.

This commodity is a alternative from the November 2019 affair of Smithsonian magazine



Along with 1,800 pounds of cameras and added accessories for creating microfilm records, HOUGHTEAM additionally agitated 11,000 basis cards account the backing of the Army Map Service as able-bodied as abundant ambition lists of abstruse universities, government institutes, libraries and added places acceptable to accept the abstracts they had been beatific to capture. The lists additionally alleged German scientists who seemed acceptable to cooperate, and some who were not to be trusted.

In Aachen, the library that Hough was attractive for was at the Technische Hochschule, or abstruse university. Admitting it had been about ashore by American bombs, bags of books remained. But what bent Hough’s absorption were the bundles of folders ample outside. It appeared as if the Germans “had larboard a cardinal of files all roped up accessible to amount assimilate trucks back they fabricated a hasty exit,” Hough wrote. The abandoned abstracts included tables of awfully absolute analysis abstracts accoutrement German breadth that the Allies had yet to reach—just what Hough was attractive for. His aggregation bound microfilmed the actual and beatific it to the front, breadth Allied accoutrements units could anon use it to advance their targeting.

The Aachen access was the aboriginal in a alternation of arresting successes for HOUGHTEAM that promised not abandoned to accelerate the end of the war but additionally to actualization the apple adjustment for decades to come. Little is about accepted about the accurate ambit of the advice that Hough and his aggregation captured, or the adeptness they displayed in accepting it, because their mission was conducted in secret, and the abstruse actual they bedeviled broadcast abandoned amidst advancing intelligence experts and academics. But it was a all-inclusive accurate treasure—likely the better accumulation of geographic abstracts the Affiliated States anytime acquired from an adversary adeptness in wartime. Relying on Hough’s memos to his superiors in Washington and added declassified annal about the mission, which are stored at the Civic Archives, in accession to clandestine belletrist and added abstracts provided by the families of several aggregation members, I accept disconnected calm the outlines of this celebrated advancing feat. The operation seems all the added amazing because it was accomplished by an absurd bandage of academics, refugees, clerks and soldiers, all led by Hough, an Ivy League-trained architect with a affection for geodesy, the centuries-old science of barometer the Earth with absolute algebraic precision.

In 20th-century warfare, men and machines could accomplish abandoned so abundant afterwards exact breadth abstracts to adviser them. The Americans knew that the Germans had a accession of this material, and had best acceptable captured alike added of it from the countries they had invaded, including the Soviet Union. If Hough and his aggregation could accomplishment the anarchy of war to coursing bottomward this prize, they would not abandoned advice to accomplishment off the Nazis but could accord the Americans an boundless advantage in any all-around battle to come.

Hough’s orders, then, were to chase the front, and ride the aboriginal catchbasin into Berlin.

These days, back the buzz in your abridged pinpoints your breadth in seconds, it’s accessible to balloon aloof how new that technology is—the U.S. advancing launched its aboriginal GPS accessory abandoned in 1978—and aloof how arduous it acclimated to be to accumulate and amalgamate absolute geographic data. Clashing a acceptable analysis acclimated to actuate acreage curve or mark the avenue for a new road, a geodetic analysis of a arena accounts for the curvature of the Earth and alike variations in this curvature. That added attention becomes added analytical over connected distances. The attributes of action in Apple War II gave geodesy new urgency, as it appropriate analogous air, arena and argosy armament above far above areas than anytime before.

Captured abstracts could accord the Americans a cardinal advantage in acumen what would become one of geodesy’s ultimate goals—creating a unified geodetic arrangement that covered the absolute globe. In such a system, any point on Earth’s apparent could be authentic by afterwards coordinates, and its ambit and administration from any added point affected with precision. This adequacy would prove abundantly advantageous for any long-distance animal endeavor, including allegorical missiles to a ambition on addition continent, as the Algid War would anon demand.

Not connected afterwards the abatement of Aachen, the Allies’ advancing bearings worsened. In December of 1944, the Germans army a counteroffensive, blame through the Allied band in southern Belgium and Luxembourg in what became accepted as the Battle of the Bulge. Foul acclimate initially ashore the Allies’ above air power, and the angry abject on into January.

Hough waited in Paris. The acclimate was miserable. Electricity was intermittent. The enlisted men relied on fireplaces for heat—when they could acquisition atramentous or copse to burn. Everyone seemed to accept a algid they couldn’t shake. HOUGHTEAM did what analysis they could in France and added affable or aloof countries. They formed six canicule a week, mostly nibbling at the edges of the absolute mission, but fabricated the best of their downtime.

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Raymond Johnson, a 24-year-old blast aggregation lineman from Chicago, explored the movies and cabarets of Paris and accomplished a few words of French with bounded women, as he afterwards wrote in an abstruse account his daughters aggregate with Smithsonian for this article. Berthold Friedl, a 46-year-old linguist who struggled to accomplish baby allocution with the enlisted men back the accumulation aggregate in the evenings to alcohol wine, wrote a book in French about Soviet advancing action and aesthetics of war that was appear in 1945. “Dr. Friedl was not able of abandoned chit-chat,” Johnson recalled.

Martin Shallenberger, 32, the Kentucky dejected blood, batten chatty German and French, and admitting he could be charming, the G.I.s activate him arrogant, according to Johnson. They bristled back he fabricated them delay while he paused to abduction some arena with his Leica camera or the watercolor acrylic set he agitated around.

David Mills, a amiable geodetic engineer, and Edward Espenshade, the geographer, were added at affluence with the G.I.s. Espenshade calm attenuate books, abnormally pornographic ones, which he larboard out for all to inspect, including Mildred Smith, one of two Women’s Army Band associates on the team. A cartography abecedary from Illinois, Smith was brought on for accounting support, but Hough took agenda of her action and intelligence and assigned her to chase the map shops of Paris, and afterwards beatific her on a analysis cruise to London. The enlisted men alleged her Smitty. Some, like Johnson, had never met such a woman. “Up to this point in my activity I had had little claimed acquaintance with the absolved blazon of woman who could apprehend our underground books and altercate them with the men with absolute composure,” he wrote.

Hough remained busy. Back the Belgians requested advice microfilming some analysis abstracts and abstruse lists of accoutrements coordinates, he was blessed to oblige—and saw to it that an added archetype was beatific to Washington afterwards the Belgians’ knowledge. Back the French burghal of Strasbourg was recaptured by the Allies, his men removed a accumulation of top-quality German analysis accessories afore the French had a adventitious to affirmation the accessory for themselves.

If an obstacle arose, Hough was accommodating to get creative. Afterwards several aloof countries aghast at absolution Espenshade and Shallenberger chase their institutes and libraries, Hough acquired belletrist from the Library of Congress certifying the men as its assembly affianced in bibliographic research. A agnate artifice got Shallenberger into the pope’s clandestine library at the Vatican, which was carefully off-limits to associates of any military, attributable to the Vatican’s cachet of neutrality.

Finally, by aboriginal March, the Allied armament resumed their eastward advance and were assertive to cantankerous the Rhine into the German heartland. HOUGHTEAM’s window of befalling was opening.

On Advance 4, Hough larboard Paris with Mills, his adolescent engineer, and three enlisted men. They entered Cologne on Advance 7, and, the abutting day, toured the captured city’s massive Gothic cathedral, acutely the abandoned architecture to accept able Allied bombing. On Advance 9, they accustomed chat that Bonn had been captured, and they fabricated it there by nightfall. There they interrogated the administrator of the bounded geodetic institute, who led them to a hidden anteroom that captivated a box of admired books. The man claimed he’d active the abstracts there admitting orders to abandon them above the Rhine. “It is hasty that these Germans abet as they do,” Hough wrote in his circadian announcement to his superiors in Washington. Whether the scientist was anti-Nazi or was artlessly abashed of what the Americans adeptness do to him, Hough wasn’t sure.

Hough and his men entered Frankfurt at the end of March, the day afterwards it was captured, demography apartment in one of the few structures still continuing in the business district. Barrio were still burning. Water was scarce. They activate some in two bathtubs the Germans hadn’t drained afore fleeing. But HOUGHTEAM’s ambition institutions in Frankfurt had been bargain to rubble. In the basement of one building, the men saw what looked like books, but they burst into accomplished ash in their hands.

In Wiesbaden, a burghal aloof to the west, their luck began to improve. In the basement of one building, they activate 18 bundles of analysis data, hidden abaft a accumulation of rubbish. Marked “Secret” or “Confidential” in German, the bedding covered bags of analysis credibility in southwestern Germany. The abstracts had actual operational amount for the U.S. Seventh Army, which was alpha to advance its way above the Rhine into that area. Hough absitively to adjustment the alternation of command to get the advice anon to the accoutrements units that could use it.

Hough and his aggregation additionally got a tip from a captured administrator of the Reichsamt für Landesaufnahme, or RfL, the German civic analysis agency; he appear the names of two baby towns, about 140 afar to the east in Thuringia, a hilly, forested arena dotted with medieval villages, which had not been on any of Hough’s ambition lists.

The U.S. Third Army was aloof affective into the area, which was acclaimed for its artisanal bisque dolls, alleged for the unglazed ceramics that gave them a conscientious appearance. On April 10, Hough headed east with four enlisted men. In the baby towns of Friedrichroda and Waltershausen, broadcast amidst three baby factories, clandestine homes, a agronomical abode and a stable, the aggregation activate the absolute annal of the RfL, which represented the German government’s best analysis abstracts of its own territory. The abstracts had been active from Berlin and hidden. It was by far the team’s better booty to date. “Cannot activate to appraisal yet what is actuality but it is plenty,” Hough wrote.

On April 12, Hough and several of his men visited Ohrdruf, a subcamp of the abominable Buchenwald complex, and the aboriginal Nazi absorption affected absolved by American forces, aloof eight canicule earlier. Generals Dwight Eisenhower and George Patton visited Ohrdruf on the aforementioned day as Hough. “There are no words able of cogent the abhorrent scenes on every hand,” Hough wrote. “It was abhorrent and we were larboard about speechless.”

That night, Johnson and a few added HOUGHTEAM enlisted men backward in a home in the adjacent burghal of Gotha. In that date of the war it was accepted convenance for the Army to batten the troops in commandeered noncombatant homes. Johnson was addled by how accustomed they felt. “They were absorbing and comfortable,” he recalled in his memoir. “Plants in the windows, closets abounding of clothes, children’s apartment with toys in them, bed-making articles, cabinets abounding of acceptable ceramics and silver.” It seemed absurd to accommodate these comfortable scenes of German calm activity with the horrors they had witnessed. One of the men sat vacantly afire holes in the adipose arm of a chair. “There was annihilation we could do that could admeasurement up to the abomination of what we had seen,” Johnson wrote.

Days afterwards Hough and his men interrogated several captured RfL officials, including the institute’s president, Wilhelm Vollmar, who approved the Americans’ backbone and spent a night in bastille as a result. Erwin Gigas, the arch geodesist, was added cooperative. A third German, whom Hough identifies abandoned as “the absolute man we were absorbed in,” accepted of added actual value. They’d been analytic for him back Wiesbaden.

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One of the Ritchie Boys, Hans Jacob Meier, the team’s ace German interrogator, led the questioning. Meier was a affable immigrant in his backward 30s who ran a cafeteria in New York City. But he additionally had a acceptability amidst the aggregation as a atramentous figure, who would abandon for canicule on abstruse errands abandoned to appearance up at absolutely the agreed-upon time and place. For German-born Ritchie Boys, abiding to their citizenry came with the accident of active into addition they’d accepted in their antecedent life, so Hough and the added men referred to him as “Corporal Liford” to burrow his identity.

The bound was afraid to cooperate. Back the analytic grew pointed, the accountable “turned several colors and banned to answer,” Hough wrote. They waited in silence. Meier threatened to accept the man arrested on the spot. If added absolute threats were fabricated or added advancing approach employed, Hough makes no acknowledgment of it. At connected last, the bound blurted out a name: Saalfeld.

Saalfeld was about 50 afar to the southeast of HOUGHTEAM’s position. Hough, Mills and bristles enlisted men accustomed on April 17, four canicule afterwards the U.S. 87th Infantry Division captured the town. The alternation base and adjacent factories had been bombed, and several absolutely loaded bales cars were in the action of actuality looted. Some of the asleep had yet to be buried. The 87th had kept on rolling to the east afterwards pausing to set up a advancing government.

Hough and his men affected ascendancy for the boondocks and met with the ambassador and three added leaders, who, Hough wrote, “seemed to be captivated to see some Allied uniforms around.” Hough ashen little time in bringing up the advice his aggregation had accustomed about a accessible backing of data. They were led bottomward an alleyway to a warehouse. Central was a allowance 30 anxiety connected by 50 anxiety wide. Shelves about extensive the beam were abounding with endless of paper.

They had activate annihilation beneath than the axial map and geodetic abstracts athenaeum for the German Army—the mother lode. The annal of the German military, clashing those of the mostly noncombatant RfL, connected able-bodied above Germany’s prewar borders, into Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The actual had been confused from Berlin to save it from Allied bombs.

Hough wrote an burning letter to an Army band arch of staff. “A alarming bearings exists in the burghal of Saalfeld,” he began. “There accept been activate some dozen or added truckloads of documents, abundant of it irreplaceable, of acute amount to the War Department.” He requested the actual celerity of at atomic 150 men to defended the town—not abandoned to assure his men and their captured actual but for the account of the townspeople as well.

There was almost time to booty banal of everything. Hough and his men spent the night in the barn to aegis their discovery. The actual affair was adrift bands of Soviet and Polish refugees, afresh absolved from adjacent affected activity camps and now demography animus by annexation homes and barrio and ambience fires. Hough estimated there were 4,000 of them, abounding of them drunk, some of them armed. If they got to the warehouse, Hough and his men would be ailing able to avert it.

By now the Red Army was advancing Berlin. The war would anon be over, and addition botheration for Hough was that Saalfeld was able-bodied central the soon-to-be-Soviet activity zone, as ahead agreed aloft by the Allied nations. In added words, the boondocks would accept to be angry over to the Soviets at the end of the war. If Hough didn’t get the maps and abstracts out quickly, the Americans would never see them again.

In the afterward days, Hough and his men put calm a above carriage operation. He adopted trucks, baby planes and enlisted men from U.S. Army units in the area, and affected dozens of German civilians to advice with the loading. By May 8, the day Germany clearly surrendered, they had alien 35 two-and-a-half-ton accommodation truckloads of maps, abstracts and instruments 75 afar south, to Bamberg, a boondocks cautiously aural the American activity zone. By June 1, they’d confused 250 bags of captured actual cautiously out of Saalfeld and abroad in Thuringia.

In Bamberg’s burghal hall, Hough accustomed a new address for the team, and commandeered about an acre of accumulator amplitude for allocation the captured material. The aggregation adopted this to 90 bags of maps, aeriform photographs, high-quality geodetic analysis instruments and abundance of printed data, which they abiding into 1,200 boxes to be alien to the Army Map Service in Washington.

The booty included complete geodetic advantage of added than a dozen European countries and states, including Russia, and several added in North Africa and the Middle East. Hough afterwards estimated that 95 percent of this abstracts was new to the U.S. military. It additionally included about 100,000 maps accoutrement all of Europe, Asiatic Russia, genitalia of North Africa, and broadcast advantage of added genitalia of the world.

The Soviets took control of Saalfeld on July 2. HOUGHTEAM was still affective actual out of the arena on July 1.

The aggregation additionally captured seven behemothic accessories alleged stereoplanigraphs—cutting-edge technology acclimated to actualize topographic maps from aeriform photos. Bristling with knobs and adjustable arms, anniversary apparatus was big abundant to ample a allowance and appropriate two bodies to operate. A circuitous autogenous arrangement of lenses and filters accumulated images from overlapping aeriform photos to accomplish high-precision abstracts of acclivity differences amidst hills and valleys and added appearance of the terrain. The models captured in Saalfeld were fabricated by Zeiss, the acclaimed German eyes firm; Hough estimated their accumulated amount at $500,000 (nearly $7 actor today). He ordered a appliance branch in Saalfeld to body aircraft crates, and beatific one of his admiral to back an architect from Zeiss address to baby-sit the disassembly and safe packing of the adored optical equipment.

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One Sunday in backward May, with best of the actual from Saalfeld cautiously relocated to the American zone, Hough assuredly gave his men a day off. It was their aboriginal back March. Afterwards the acute blitz of the accomplished few weeks, Hough, too, allegation accept bare a adventitious to rest. In his memos, he acclaimed that they’d had a amplitude of affable bounce weather, and the countryside of southern Germany looked beautiful. German soldiers could be apparent on the streets, ambiguity their way home, still cutting their uniforms and accustomed their packs.

The end of the war did not apathetic Hough down. He already had a eyes for what to do with the captured material, and in Bamberg he bound got to work. Geodesists had afresh amorphous to aspire to an aggressive new goal: creating a geodetic network, or “datum,” accoutrement the absolute world. In 1945, this was still a abroad dream. Europe abandoned was a check of almost 20 datums. Anniversary country, sometimes alike alone regions aural a distinct country, had performed its own surveys, generally application altered algebraic methods.

Yet the raw abstracts bare to actualize a Europe-wide accomplishment existed—and Hough now had abundant of it. Massive number-crunching would be appropriate to accomplish it useful. So in mid-May, Hough confused RfL geodesist Erwin Gigas to Bamberg, forth with several of his above computational staff. There the Germans performed the bags of calculations appropriate to accommodate analysis abstracts accoutrement a all-inclusive swath of Axial Europe into a distinct geodetic datum. Hough abiding for the geodesists to accept allowance and lath in German homes and paid them the bacon they’d been accepting from the German government. As the accumulation grew, Allied counter-intelligence admiral vetted anniversary new member, barring anyone doubtable of Nazi sympathies.

The blow of HOUGHTEAM kept at it. Shallenberger and Espenshade baldheaded maps and abstracts hidden central alkali mines and castles and alike active amidst animal basic in the graveyard of a monastery. They apparent the map accumulating of the German accompaniment department, the aeriform photo athenaeum of the Luftwaffe, and assorted avant-garde German accessories and processes accompanying to mapmaking.

Shallenberger additionally captured the German accepted in allegation of maps and surveys for the Nazi military, Gerlach Hemmerich. The U.S. Army had commandeered Hemmerich’s home, in Berlin, but on a anticipation Shallenberger paid a visit. He noticed that the German baker acclimated the academic adaptation of the language, usually announced abandoned by awful accomplished people. Afterwards questioning, the woman accepted that she was Hemmerich’s wife, and said that she and her bedmate had been active in the abode all along. The accepted had afresh taken a job stoking furnaces at a U.S. Army installation; back he alternate home from work, Shallenberger and an armed escort took him into custody.

With their mission ambagious down, Hough fabricated time to abstract belletrist advising his aggregation associates for promotions and new jobs. He recommended Meier, the German-born interrogator, for a two-grade promotion, and afterwards a Bronze Star, crediting him with apprehension advice that led anon to abounding of the team’s greatest discoveries. “It is accepted through German sources that abundant of this assignment was done at ample accident to his life, both at the time and in the future,” Hough wrote.

Hough assuredly alternate to Washington in September 1945 and resumed his position as arch of the Geodetic Division of the Army Map Service. By the time Gigas and his accumulation completed their assignment on the Axial European datum, in 1947, Hough, who’d connected to biking to all-embracing conferences to accommodated with adopted geodesists, had laid the adept background for abutting the blow of Europe to the geodetic network. Back several countries that had been invaded by the Nazis understandably banned to about-face over their civic analysis abstracts to the German geodesists, Hough abiding the Army Map Service to booty over the project. The assignment accomplished a acme in 1951, with the achievement of the European Datum, or ED50, which affiliated the abstemious in a accepted geodetic arrangement for the aboriginal time.

The ED50, in turn, became allotment of the foundation for a new all-around alike arrangement accepted as the Universal Transverse Mercator, the accepted alike arrangement acclimated by the U.S. advancing and NATO. It anon accepted appropriately advantageous for noncombatant operations, and was adopted for applications as assorted as bread-and-butter development projects, ecological analysis and oil prospecting. William Rankin, a historian of science at Yale and columnist of the 2016 book Afterwards the Map: Cartography, Navigation, and the Transformation of Breadth in the Twentieth Century, says the Universal Transverse Mercator was a acute footfall forth the aisle from ancient maps, which represented breadth in an allegedly beheld way, to alike systems such as GPS, which ascertain locations with abundant greater afterwards precision. UTM showed “how to anticipate abnormally about amplitude and breadth application mathematics,” Rankin says. “It was like GPS—before GPS.”

Despite their accomplishments, the exploits of HOUGHTEAM accept been abandoned briefly acclaimed by a scattering of historians, and their adventure has been abundantly abandoned alike aural the advancing geospatial community. “We’re acclimated to alive in abstruse and activity anonymous for our contributions to civic security,” says Thom Kaye, a advancing cartographer who abandoned abstruse of Hough’s adventure a few years ago, afterwards he happened aloft a advertence in a history of Algid War cartography. Kaye began lobbying for Hough to be inducted into the Anteroom of Fame of the Civic Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Hough, who died in 1976 at age 77, accustomed this afterward account aftermost year.

According to Gary Weir, the agency’s official historian, the abstracts captured by HOUGHTEAM was an astronomic benefaction to the U.S. during the Algid War. The adeptness to ambition Red Square with an intercontinental ballistic missile launched from a silo in Montana requires a akin of attention that can abandoned appear from geodesy. As it happened, the Saalfeld booty included Russian geodetic analysis abstracts the Germans had in their possession—data that HOUGHTEAM confused to the U.S. “If we capital to put ammunition on target, this is absolutely the abstracts you bare to do it,” Weir says. Perhaps not surprisingly, Hough played an aboriginal role in developing the Army’s affairs of analysis for guided missile systems.

In the batty canicule of mutually assured destruction, it mattered not abandoned that we had this data, Weir says, but additionally that the Soviets knew we had it. And they did. In 1957, according to an commodity appear the afterward year in Activity magazine, Hough met a cardinal of arch Soviet geodesists at a appointment in Toronto. Aloft actuality alien by colleagues, one of the Russian assembly eyed Hough calmly and said, “We accept heard a lot about you, Mr. Hough.”

This adventure was produced in affiliation with Atellan Media and Six Foot Press.

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