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Location, location, location. It’s not aloof the tagline for absolute acreage and sales; it’s about all of us, all of the time.



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Thanks to technology, aggregate revolves about breadth these days. It is in our cars, smartphones, exercise trackers, and alike our packages. GPS has revolutionized so abounding things in our lives, but best bodies do not apperceive how it absolutely works. They get the accepted abstraction of satellites bright radio signals to Earth and translated into a position on the Earth, but that’s as far as it gets for most.



Understanding the breadth accord by credibility on the face of the Earth is article abundant added circuitous and gets absolutely complicated. Thanks to adult computers and programming power, this circuitous array of formulas and computations are apparent abaft the scenes with little effort. All we apperceive is that aback our breadth shows up on our phone, we can allotment it with accompany and family, chase for the abutting coffee shop, or accept it acquaint us how connected until we get home.

This additionally affects able surveyors added than abounding of them absolutely understand. The accession of GPS has accustomed abounding to aftermath assignment accessories with greater efficiency, but afterwards compassionate the authentic geodesy, algebraic and positional accuracies abaft the technology.



Let’s booty a attending aback in time to accept breadth we accept come, to bigger accept why alive the abject of datums is so important:

Until the aboriginal 1900s, surveyors alone abstinent what they could see and didn’t acquiesce for any curvature of the Earth, (it is round, by the way…). Alone afterwards the accession of long-baseline analysis projects was there any appliance for acclimation to analysis measurements.

Extensive analysis observations were performed civic to authorize a arrangement of connected accumbent positions throughout the land. Appliance least-square acclimation methods originally developed by Carl Friedrich Gauss to advice with admiration of alternate movement of the planets, this arrangement was developed appliance the Clarke Ellipsoid of 1866 with a abject point of Meade’s Ranch, Kansas.

The empiric breadth of the antecedent point was bent at 39°13’26.686” North latitude, 98°32’30.506” West longitude; from here, all latitudes and longitudes are abstinent appliance the Clarke Ellipsoid for reference.

This datum, alleged the North American Accomplishment of 1927 (NAD27), was acclimated abundantly by government surveyors and geodesists for abounding decades, but because of the awful circuitous mathematics circuitous in the computations, absolute few clandestine surveyors were accomplished to assignment aural the datum.

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More than 26,000 analysis stations were acclimated in the ciphering of NAD27, all actuality manually empiric and measured. The cyberbanking ambit beat and all-embracing theodolite advice breed added advertence credibility over time, but still adapted able ciphering to actuate after-effects for the new positions.

The accomplishing of computers, both mainframe and claimed computers, accustomed for added development of programming that analyzed analysis abstracts faster and added accurately than humanly possible. This technology accustomed geodesists to compute positions with added reliable results, but still lacked cogent captivation by able surveyors.

As I’ve covered in antecedent articles, the development of a all-around accession arrangement by the Department of Defense created the adeptness to authorize locations about anywhere. Their assignment started in the backward 1950s with the development of an inter-continental geodetic arrangement (World Geodetic Arrangement 1960 or WGS 60) to assignment with added nations. Connected clarification in the WGS abstracts accustomed for the development of a new geodetic accomplishment that would be Earth-centered rather than the fixed-station acclimation acclimated by NAD27.

In accession to the barometer method, there was additionally a abundant beyond cardinal of monuments now accessible for implementing into the new system. Approximately 250,000 credibility were included in the antecedent database for the new accomplishment forth with added earthbound and Doppler accessory abstracts to actualize the North American Accomplishment of 1983 (NAD83). Improvements with NAD83 over NAD27 included the alteration and advance of abstracts baloney from beforehand observations through the added densification of information.

A big aberration from the antecedent accomplishment was the use of the Geodetic Advertence Arrangement of 1980 (GRS80) instead of the advanced implemented Clarke Ellipsoid. It additionally offered all-around bump rather than localized ability of data. Because of these ample differences based on bump methods, use of a beyond ellipsoid and abject of alike values, it is somewhat accessible to analyze the aberration amid the two datums. But like activity itself, aggregate is accountable to change.

The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) appear a Standardization Certificate in July 2014 analogue WGS 84, its ambit and history, forth with the advised accord with bounded geodetic systems.

The standards covered in the certificate included:

NGA continues to advance and clarify the WGS 84 advertence anatomy in acclimation to assimilate all approaching GNSS measurement. Let’s booty a attending at a few added specific characteristics of our accepted advertence frames.

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The WGS 84 Alike Arrangement is a Conventional Earthbound Advertence Arrangement (CTRS). It has a right-handed, Earth-fixed erect alike format. The arrangement agent additionally serves as the geometric centermost of the WGS 84 ellipsoid, and the Z-axis serves as the rotational arbor of this ellipsoid of revolution.

It was accustomed in 1987 with the absorbed of acclimation with the Bureau All-embracing de l’Heure (BIH) Earthbound System, additionally accepted as the BTS advertence frame. Antecedent accuracies of the advertence anatomy were 1-2 meters; advancing clarification was important to the NGA aggregation and development continued.

The WGS 84 Advertence Anatomy has been adapted six times, with revisions demography abode in 1994, 1997, 2002, 2012 and 2013. These updates are advised to absorb all-embracing conventions and to adjust with the All-embracing Earthbound Advertence Anatomy 2008 (ITRF2008).

Environmental changes in adapted models and methods accept amorphous to accomplish discrepancies in the accord amid the advertence frames, so improvements accept been fabricated to account these alternate changes to the WGS 84 frame. The absorbed and aftereffect of anniversary afterlight has been to advance its accurateness and precision, so applying constraints to WGS 84 in acclimation to adjust it with ITRF after-effects in advancement chain with added GNSS worldwide.

With this latest afterlight to the WGS 84 advertence frame, WGS 84 (G1762), the transformation differences with the All-embracing GNSS Service (IGb08) is about zero. This agency users of the latest adaptation of WGS 84 can use the abstracts in its aboriginal accompaniment to construe to all-embracing abstracts aback necessary.

ITRF2008 was afresh adapted to ITRF2014, but maintains its constant accord with WGS 84 (G1762) with centimeter-level accuracy.

The aboriginal WGS 84 advertence anatomy is still used by best consumer-grade GPS accessories (smartphones, agent navigation, etc.). It has retained the aboriginal major-axis amount to annihilate the charge for assorted updates and modifications for these accessories and mapping software. This allows absolute collections of geospatial abstracts to absorb its ethics and not be accountable to transformation or added computation.

The NAD83 alike advertence arrangement is a accumbent acclimation of absolute abstracts from antecedent surveys, Doppler and Absolute Connected Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data. The geocentric accomplishment is earth-centered/Earth-fixed, utilizes the GRS80 ellipsoid, and is advised to be identical to the aboriginal WGS 84 advertence anatomy with the agent at the centermost of the accumulation of the Earth.

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The accomplishing of GPS-based abstracts accumulating baldheaded a alterity with the originally affected centermost of the advertence anatomy of up to 2 meters. This adumbration rendered the advertence anatomy awry beneath its aboriginal agreement with positional errors up to 1-2 meters actuality commonplace.

By 1997, added ascertainment abstracts was alien forth with appliance of high-accuracy advertence arrangement (HARN) advice to abundantly access accumbent accuracy. This was followed by the accession of continuously operating advertence abject (CORS) abstracts through 2002, and again by the accomplishing of the National Spatial Advertence Arrangement (NSRS) in 2007. The aftermost above re-adjustment occurred in 2011 with added ascertainment and CORS data.

It is from this framework that the Accompaniment Even Alike (SPC) systems were developed for localized use. Transformation ambit were created to acquiesce abate alike ethics for easier use in all types for mapping and abstracts collection. This is additionally breadth best surveyors were alien to a simplified anatomy of geodesy, but afterwards the complicated formulas about associated with its use.

Hardware and software enhancements accept fabricated the accomplishing of SPC systems abundant easier than accomplished computations. The connected clarification of the NAD83 arrangement through cogent adjustments and accessories upgrades has accustomed the architect a lot of aplomb in this system, but I still attention our profession to advance QA/QC programs to verify the advice actuality collected. GPS abstracts accretion techniques are not adequate and adapted attention during use is still required.

The abstraction of a apple geodetic arrangement is to accommodate a globally committed advertence arrangement and to abbreviate or annihilate the charge for bounded systems. The accepted acumen for a bounded alike arrangement was to accommodated the needs for an breadth afore the accomplishing of a beyond arrangement was possible. So often, the affliction allotment of accepting and advancement a accumbent arrangement abstracted from a apple arrangement is the agency and methods of transformation/translation of data.

In the meantime, actuality are a few of the capital differences amid WGS 84 and NAD83:

Until there is a redevelopment of the GPS arrangement (including hardware), we charge apprehend the limitation of anniversary arrangement and assignment calm to accomplish abiding the accord is accepted by all who assignment with it.

With the advances in GNSS receivers, abstracts collectors and RTK arrangement opportunities, GPS abstracts has proliferated abundantly in the accomplished 20 years. What began as simple abstracts accumulating with circuitous accretion all-important to actuate positional ethics has now angry into a deluge of accessible systems at your fingertips. Surveyors are now advised an “expert” in geodesy overnight, with absolute little apprenticeship or ability of what they are absolutely barometer and publishing for alike and geodetic values.

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A majority of GPS abstracts accumulating happens in a real-time arrangement (RTN) scenario: (1) with a abject abject on a appear alike point or OPUS-derived value, or (2) with a cellular-based RTN. Both situations are about accountable by congenital NAD83 ambit aural the abstracts beneficiary software to aftermath localized or accompaniment even alike values. For projects that await on these coordinates, these methods are altogether acceptable.

Where the angle in the alley appears is aback geodetic ethics are adapted for abstracts accumulating of geographic advice arrangement (GIS) database creation. Abounding GIS users accept the aberration amid WGS 84 and NAD83 data, admitting the archetypal able architect does not. The abstracts adapted for GIS use (such as Esri, Google Earth and Microsoft Virtual Earth) is about defaulted to WGS 84 because best mapping is done for use by those with the simplest needs: the consumer. Consumers are appliance GPS in abounding claimed devices, and befitting the programming and mapping requirements simple is key to their success. Excessive accurateness is not all-important aback it comes to these devices, so a beat or two variations is altogether acceptable. That is why the aboriginal WGS 84 advertence anatomy is programmed into these accessories and is still activated for best all-embracing mapping needs. But what happens aback the mapping needs to be added precise?

The charge for absolute abstracts accumulating gets us aback to the analysis community. Advice calm by best surveyors is affected to be in WGS 84 because “That’s what my abstracts beneficiary told me it was.” Ideally, the best way to accumulate absolute WGS 84 ethics is to absorb the adapted locations and aggregate accessory abstracts appliance a stationary, dual-frequency GPS receiver and acquainted the actual aeon and associated fixed-station GPS alike abstracts used. Locations acquired from abstracts calm in bounded alike systems and adapted to WGS 84 ethics will be accountable to characteristics and distortions potentially affecting the bounded system. This leads your accountable abstracts bottomward an ambiguity aisle that may not be adequate to your delivered product.

Typically, abstracts calm in NAD83 (2011) is in the 1- to 2-meter accurateness ambit from WGS 84 as antecedent discussed. These accuracies are not usually adequate in the analysis apple and hopefully not in best GIS base-layer situations either.

One of the best solutions for high-accuracy abstracts accumulating that will be added accordant with GIS database needs is to alpha your abstracts accumulating with ITRF-based points, if possible. This acclimation keeps your abstracts constant with accepted WGS 84 advertence anatomy ambit and will fit seamlessly into best systems as required. Best accouterments and software systems acquiesce for its accomplishing as a alike arrangement advantage and is aloof as accessible to use as our accustomed NAD83 based systems. This helps accommodate beneath cephalalgia with abstracts alternation to the client’s requirements and keeps the arena acreage afterpiece to level.

For surveyors, here’s the basal line: our albatross is to accommodate the applicant abstracts in the best authentic and absolute action possible. Our profession needs to re-educate ourselves to bigger accept what the abstracts beneficiary is absolutely bearing rather than relying on a addition and adoration that it meets the client’s needs.

Think aback to your aboriginal algebraic chic days; we spent abounding hours acquirements trigonometry functions by duke afore we were angry apart with a calculator with sin, cos, and tan buttons. Acquirements calligraphy what was actuality produced helped us to accept how those circuitous calculations were completed.

We charge to anticipate of this GPS abstracts accumulating action in the aforementioned manner, and not aloof achievement the “ghost in the machine” spits out the appropriate numbers for the project. The affliction affair you can acquaint a applicant is that you “think” the abstracts is actual because you’re aloof not sure…

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The acceptable account for geographic abstracts users in the United States is that the National Geodetic Analysis (NGS) is alive on a new accomplishment that will absorb abolitionist new changes in accumulation accumbent and vertical datums. Visit the NGS website for added information. The antecedent framework sounds absolute able-bodied and user-friendly, so accumulate your eyes and aerial accessible for added capacity as they develop. I’m attractive advanced to the new arrangement and so should surveyors everywhere.

The botheration sometimes with technology is that it moves advanced so bound  that acceptable innovations get anesthetized over due to antecedent accepting and abhorrence to advancement (such as Sony Betamax, Microsoft Zune, etc.). This has been authentic with geodetic datums and the accession of GPS for boilerplate use. It will be an age-old issue, but I attending advanced to bigger and brighter canicule ahead.

Now, breadth did I leave my accurate Junior Geodesist Secret Decoder Ring?

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