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SAN FRANCISCO — On Amazon, chump comments can advice a artefact billow in popularity. The online retail behemothic says that added than 99 percent of its reviews are accepted because they are accounting by absolute shoppers who aren’t paid for them.

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But a Washington Column assay begin that for some accepted artefact categories, such as Bluetooth headphones and speakers, the all-inclusive majority of reviews arise to breach Amazon’s prohibition on paid reviews. Such reviews accept assertive characteristics, such as repetitive diction that bodies apparently cut and adhesive in.

Many of these counterfeit reviews arise on Facebook, area sellers seek shoppers on dozens of networks, including Amazon Assay Club and Amazon Reviewers Group, to accord aglow acknowledgment in barter for money or added compensation. The convenance artificially inflates the baronial of bags of products, experts say, ambiguous consumers. banned advantageous for reviews a year and a bisected ago because of assay it conducted assuming that consumers disbelief paid reviews. Every already in a while, including this month, Amazon purges shoppers from its armpit whom it accuses of breaking its policies.

But the ban, sellers and experts say, alone pushed an activity that acclimated to booty abode aboveboard into broadcast and harder-to-track online communities.

There, an abridgement of paid reviews has flourished. Merchants agreement to bead reimbursements into a reviewer’s PayPal annual aural annual of announcement comments for items such as kitchen knives, rain ponchos or battery caddies, generally aspartame the accord with a $5 agency or a $10 Amazon allowance card. Facebook this ages deleted added than a dozen of the groups area sellers and buyers akin afterwards actuality contacted by The Post. Amazon kicked a best agent off its armpit afterwards an assay from The Post.

“These canicule it is actual adamantine to advertise annihilation on Amazon if you comedy fairly,” said Tommy Noonan, who operates ReviewMeta, a website that helps consumers atom apprehensive Amazon reviews. “If you appetite your artefact to be competitive, you accept to somehow accomplish reviews.”

Sellers say the flood of inauthentic reviews makes it harder for them to attempt accurately and can drove profits. “It’s devastating, devastating,” said Mark Caldeira, buyer of the baby-products aggregation Mayapple Baby. He said his artefact rankings accept plummeted in the accomplished year and a half, advertence it to competitors application paid reviews. “We aloof can’t accumulate up.”

Suspicious or counterfeit reviews are bottleneck out accurate ones in some categories, The Column begin application ReviewMeta data. ReviewMeta examines red flags, such as an almighty ample cardinal of reviews that fasten over a abbreviate aeon of time or “sock puppet” reviewers who arise to accept cut and pasted banal language.

For example, of the 47,846 absolute reviews for the aboriginal 10 articles listed in an Amazon chase for “bluetooth speakers,” two-thirds were problematic, based on calculations application the ReviewMeta tool. So were added than bisected of the 32,435 reviews for the top 10 Bluetooth headphones listed.

Diet pills and added supplements additionally generated ample numbers of ambiguous reviews. Aloof 33 percent of the reviews for the top 10 testosterone boosters listed on Amazon appeared legitimate, and alone 44 percent of reviews for the top listed weight-loss pills, according to abstracts crunched from ReviewMeta.

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Incentivized reviewers accord college ratings than nonpaid reviewers, according to ReviewMeta. The aftereffect is that consumers could aback be purchasing poorer-quality products.

“I don’t like to be taken advantage of,” said Eric Hall, 53, a assay chemist in Minneapolis and an Amazon Prime chump who no best trusts best reviews. He sees them as a brand of acceptable artifice rather than excellence.

Amazon says it aggressively polices its belvedere for incentivized reviews. Amazon has filed bristles lawsuits back 2015 adjoin bodies who address paid reviews and companies that accost them.

“We apperceive that millions of barter accomplish abreast affairs decisions accustomed application Chump Reviews,” an Amazon spokeswoman, Angie Newman, said in a statement. “We booty this albatross actual actively and avert the candor of reviews by demography advancing activity to assure barter from backbiting parties who are abusing the reviews system. . . . We booty bull activity adjoin both reviewers and sellers by suppressing reviews that breach our guidelines and suspend, ban or accompany acknowledged activity adjoin these bad actors.”

Ming Ooi, arch action administrator for Fakespot, a assay auditing armpit that analyzes comments, agnate to ReviewMeta, said that “the affair with affected or capricious reviews has not below at all but acceptable is worsening.”

Problems with the actuality of Amazon reviews appear at a moment of ample accessible affair over the accurateness of advice on platforms congenital by Silicon Valley. The advance of Russian bamboozlement and hoaxes on YouTube and Facebook has aloft questions about the role of technology platforms in announcement and amplifying falsehoods, accidental to a altitude of disbelief and amusing division.

Amazon has able the assay of its peers. But the aforementioned social-network furnishings that accredit misinformation additionally added alter online commerce. Amusing media has accelerated the convenance of online reviewing because of its ability to accompany calm groups of bodies who accumulate for a specific purpose, such as appraisement Uber drivers.

A Facebook spokeswoman, Rebecca Maas, said in an email: “We are committed to accretion the acceptable and aspersing the bad beyond Facebook. . . . There are abounding accepted groups on Facebook accompanying to online commerce, but the groups articular abusage our platform.” Facebook would not acknowledge which groups it removed.

Sellers say that Amazon’s position as the top e-commerce destination has spawned a chase to adept — and bold — the company’s systems. Added than bisected of all online artefact searches alpha on Amazon, according to assay abstracts by the agenda business close BloomReach. Landing amid the aboriginal 10 after-effects on an Amazon chase can drive an admission in sales, according to sellers.

Amazon arch controlling Jeffrey P. Bezos aboriginal championed the abstraction of showcasing chump reviews on his online bookstore in 1995, allowance advance the angle that consumers accomplish smarter choices arcade online than in brick-and-mortar food because tech platforms accredit them to instantly admission the opinions of adolescent shoppers. That paved the way for review-based sites such as Yelp, Uber and Airbnb.

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But the eyes Bezos popularized, of a assay and ratings arrangement that serves as a adviser for consumers to accomplish smarter choices, has accustomed way to a arrangement in which some consumers are manipulated and misled. (Bezos is the buyer of The Post.)

Amazon rankings are the new “battlefield” for online manipulation, said Renee DiResta, action advance for the nonprofit Abstracts for Democracy, a accumulation of technology advisers committed to announcement candor online. She has conducted assay on paid Amazon reviews by abutting some of the Facebook groups. “There’s a aphotic ancillary to the chase for the stars,” she said.

How Amazon comes up with its brilliant ratings is a carefully attentive secret. On its website, Amazon says it uses a apparatus acquirements archetypal that takes abounding factors into account, including the age of a review, helpfulness votes by barter and whether reviews are from absolute purchasers. Reviews are a accessory agency in the all-embracing rating, Amazon said, but it would not quantify their weighting.

The aggregation said it uses bogus intelligence to assay “hundreds of thousands” of Amazon barter who accept been banned from abrogation reviews and uses the abstracts calm to body computer models of their behavior to adumbrate approaching techniques.

The auditing sites use a software algorithm that scrapes Amazon’s website for apprehensive patterns or attributes of the assay or the reviewer. ReviewMeta again gives the artefact a new brilliant appraisement based alone on the reviews its arrangement deems acceptable to be authentic. For example, deleting the apprehensive reviews on a brace of wireless headphones from Atgoin alone its appraisement from 4.4 stars to 2.6.

ReviewMeta and Fakespot say the affluence of audition potentially counterfeit reviews makes them admiration why Amazon isn’t added stringent.

For two decades, Amazon acceptable incentivized reviews, as continued as reviewers appear that they had accustomed a chargeless or discounted product. But it began arise bottomward on the convenance in 2015, acknowledging its struggles to ascendancy it.

“Despite abundant efforts to brand out the practice,” aggregation attorneys wrote in a lawsuit, “an ailing ecosystem is developing alfresco of Amazon to accumulation inauthentic reviews.”

Around the aforementioned time, Amazon began allure adopted sellers to advertise articles anon on its site. The move acutely worsened the botheration of scamming, experts say, because aggressive on amount and added reviews were a way for Chinese manufacturers to go up adjoin accepted brands that are able-bodied accepted to American consumers.

Atgoin, an electronics aggregation based in Shenzen, China, was one such aggregation that leapfrogged to the top of Amazon rankings. In November, its $30 headphones had aloof a scattering of reviews. Then, over a five-day aeon in December, the artefact accustomed about 300 reviews, about all of which gave bristles stars.

The ReviewMeta assay begin that added than 90 percent of all the reviews for the Atgoin headphones were suspicious. Abounding featured echo phrases, including “I’ll be application this for my gym conditioning activity forward” and “comfortable to wear.” By aboriginal February, the Atgoin headphones, which had 927 reviews, appeared at the top in non-sponsored chase results.

It is cryptic how Atgoin acquired the flood of absolute reviews. Atgoin on its website says it offers consumers “free and alone discounted samples” in acknowledgment for “your valued, honest feedback” — accent that Amazon said bankrupt its policies. Atgoin did not acknowledge to a appeal for animadversion through its Amazon agent folio or its website. Afterwards The Post’s queries, Amazon removed Atgoin as a seller.

Amazon’s ban has not cut bottomward on paid reviews so abundant as pushed them into the shadows, say sellers and researchers.

In February, there were about 100 Facebook groups, breach up by geographic arena and by artefact categories, in which Amazon merchants actively solicited consumers to address paid reviews. One such accumulation had over 50,000 Facebook associates until Facebook deleted it afterwards The Post’s inquiry. There are additionally Reddit boards and YouTube tutorials that drillmaster bodies on how to address reviews. Websites with names such as Slickdeals and JumpSend let merchants accord out discounted products, application a artifice to get about Amazon’s ban.

Merchants gluttonous to bamboozle Amazon accept flocked to Facebook in particular, DiResta said.

Last year, DiResta began belief and abutting Amazon analyst groups on Facebook. Her aboriginal act in the groups was to address “interested” abutting to a column anecdotic a brace of Bluetooth headphones for $35.99. About immediately, a Facebook user purportedly alleged SC Li beatific her a absolute message, calling her “dear” and allurement for a articulation to her Amazon profile. If she advised the headphones, SC Li said, he would balance her via her PayPal account.

Within an hour of accepting SC Li’s message, DiResta got a bulk of absolute letters from added sellers, allurement her to assay tea lights, containers, battery caddies, brand holders, sanding discs, rain ponchos, pocket-size vanity mirrors and butterfly knives. The letters came in so quickly, she said, she almost had time to respond.

DiResta spent three months ecology the groups. She empiric the sellers application approach to abstain apprehension by Amazon, such as absorption on reviewers who accept a continued history of autograph Amazon reviews. The sellers asked her for awning images assuming back she started her profile.

DiResta begin that abounding of the Facebook accounts had no accompany on the amusing network. Their alone Facebook posts were about bargain products, and their contour pictures included banal photos. A about-face angel chase on SC Li’s contour photo, of a man on a beach, for example, appear a banal photo alleged “seaside man” that appeared on assorted Chinese-language affairs websites, an adumbration of a affected profile.

Reviewers “just see it as a way to accomplish added money,” DiResta said. “The catechism is why doesn’t Amazon able bottomward more? These communities are not a secret.”

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