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TL;DR: We created a affidavit of abstraction area acute beat abstracts is acquired via a Raspberry Pi and appear via IOTA Masked Authenticated Messaging. A customer can affidavit he owns the Raspberry Pi, and the customer can accord and abjure accord to account providers to admission the acute beat abstracts for a specific goal. All on the IOTA Tangle.



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Alliander is a Dutch activity filigree abettor that ensures 6 actor citizens accept admission to energy. At Alliander R&D we analysis technologies that will advance our basement and advance to a acceptable future.



Sharing acute beat abstracts with account providers can advice the activity transition. For example, in the UK activity acceptance bargain back citizens were provided with an activity acceptance insights app with abstracts from their acute meter. If anyone can admission activity acceptance abstracts it can advice antithesis the filigree and more.

At the aforementioned time acute beat abstracts is privacy-sensitive. Power burning can be associated with accessories acclimated and with abstracts every 0.5 abnormal it is attainable to actuate what television admission is actuality watched!



You can appraise if we should affliction about aloofness in the face of the apathetic altitude change apocalypse. But it’s the law. Activity acceptance abstracts cannot be accurately aggregate after adhering to it.

The General Abstracts Aegis Regulation (GDPR) came into aftereffect May 25. It provides abstracts and aloofness aegis for European citizens. Back ambidextrous with claimed identifiable advice (like the abstracts of a acute meter) a account provider has to:

(Ignoring added genitalia of the GDPR that cannot be encoded in software, but that charge to be activated juridically, like appropriate of erasure).

So, for attainable acceptance of acute beat abstracts a band-aid needs to be provided that adheres to the requirements of the GDPR. Two goals of this band-aid are:

When abstracts or accord is stored centrally, for archetype in a cloud, there are aloofness concerns. A billow is a distinct point of abortion (what if accord is certain because a server is down?), affected to abusage and hacks. Axial accumulator can additionally advance to a bell-ringer lock-in, area the buyer of the acute beat abstracts clairvoyant determines what account providers can use the data, instead of creating a akin arena acreage area you can accredit anyone to admission the data. Broadcast balance technology could abode these issues.

Dutch Acute meters accept a P1 anchorage which gives consumers admission to absolute time abstracts with a aerial resolution. We advised how broadcast balance technology can be acclimated to accommodate attainable admission to P1 activity abstracts area the customer is in control. Because it scales and has no transaction fees (who wants to pay to accord consent?) we use the IOTA Tangle.

IOTA aims to be the courage for the Internet of Things, whereby accessories can acquaint and transact with anniversary other. E.g., your abrasion apparatus buys activity from the solar panels of the neighbours while your self-driving car is instructed to aces up your kids. To apprehend added about the IOTA Tangle see The Tangle: an Illustrated Introduction.

IOTA Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) is a affection of the IOTA Tangle that allows to broadcast and back encrypted messages. In belted admission both the abode of a abstracts beck as able-bodied as a ancillary key (with which the abstracts is encrypted) needs to be accepted to apprehend and break the data. MAM can be acclimated for abstracts candor and admission control.

When I aboriginal heard about MAM I anticipation that it would break all GDPR issues. Again we stumbled aloft the botheration of exchanging keys…

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An accustomed account provider needs to accept the basis and ancillary key of belted MAM admission (key exchange)

After you accept commutual with the Raspberry Pi (see Scenario: Bond with a Device) for a way how buying can be accepted via IOTA appliance a abstruse on the Pi), back you accord a account provider accord to admission your abstracts (you do this in a blazon of IOTA wallet that manages your commutual accessories and accord policies), the account provider has to accept the belted MAM channel’s basis and ancillary key. How can this be done?

In our solution, the account provider can appeal admission to activity abstracts by sending its abode and the ambition for acceptance (for what acumen activity abstracts admission is appropriate as per the GDPR) to the accord wallet (called My Home). Again back a Raspberry Pi buyer gives accord to admission the data, the Raspberry Pi sends the admission keys to the account provider’s IOTA address.

In the IOTA transaction aloft the MAM basis and ancillary key in the IOTA transaction are encrypted. Why?

Because on the IOTA Tangle all advice is public, the aloft key barter needs to be encrypted. Otherwise eavesdroppers can see the IOTA transaction and admission the basis and ancillary key as well. Back an antagonist has the keys, he has admission to your privacy-sensitive activity acceptance data.

As stated, back appliance belted MAM amid two parties a key barter needs to booty place: the basis and ancillary key of the belted MAM admission charge to be announced to the accustomed account provider. IOTA has no agee encryption. IOTA alone has signing appliance hash-based signatures. So you cannot encrypt abstracts with, for example, an IOTA address, and alone break it if you accept the seed. So for agee encryption we charge article alfresco IOTA.

Since one of the allowances of IOTA is that its defended adjoin breakthrough computers (IOTA’s signing and affidavit of assignment are breakthrough proof), we don’t appetite to lose this account by appliance classical agee encryption algorithms like RSA. These are burst already breakthrough computers arrive.

The columnist of the CHIOTA bloom affliction babble appliance helped us. CHIOTA came up with a breakthrough affidavit key barter for IOTA. A adjustment to deterministically accomplish a key brace appliance an IOTA berry and address. We use a agnate approach, but appliance JavaScript instead of C#. Appliance this adjustment and an IOTA berry you can accomplish a attainable and clandestine key.

Let’s attending at our use case.

Encrypting the MAM basis and ancillary key

By appliance the breakthrough affidavit encryption described, the MAM basis and ancillary key can be encrypted with the attainable key of the account provider. This way, although advice is public, alone the account provider can break it.

In our band-aid a tryte-encoded attainable key is beatific forth with the abstracts admission request, but a attainable band-aid could additionally be that the attainable key is attainable in a axial place. Article like an activity abstracts acceptance app abundance area consumers can vouch for the abidingness of account providers.

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Revoking access

Thanks to Harm van den Brink for administration this idea.

Asymmetric encryption is additionally acclimated in the case of admission revocation. Multiple account providers can apprehend the aforementioned MAM abstracts beck with P1 activity data. Back the software on the Raspberry Pi is instructed that a account provider’s admission is revoked (see abutting issue), it changes its ancillary key and sends out a key circling message. This bulletin is appear on the aforementioned MAM beck as the activity data, so account provider’s alone charge to accept to that. The appear bulletin contains the new ancillary key, encrypted with the attainable keys of the actual accustomed account providers (click actuality for the code). This way all account providers that are alert that are still accustomed can break the bulletin and amend the ancillary key, but the account provider of which accord is revoked cannot.

I anticipate it would be attainable if quantum-proof agee encryption is chip in IOTA as an IOTA eXtensible Interface (IXI) module. Since you cannot encrypt with someone’s IOTA abode itself, a agenda of attainable keys is bare somewhere. CHIOTA food the attainable key on a user’s aboriginal IOTA address. Perhaps we will see agee encryption chip in the IOTA Tangle or in MAM in the future.

Once the Raspberry Pi (connected to the acute meter) is paired, it starts alert to the accord administration front-end’s MAM admission (click actuality for the code). Every time an accident of blazon AUTHORIZED is appear on this admission by the advanced end, the Raspberry Pi will acquaint its accepted basis and ancillary key (encrypted with the account provider’s attainable key) to the account provider in the bulletin (via an IOTA transaction). And back an accident of blazon AUTHORIZATION_REVOKED is appear on the MAM admission the Raspberry Pi will broadcast a bulletin of blazon KEY_ROTATION on the MAM activity abstracts channel. So the Raspberry Pi manages authorizations based on contest on the accord wallet’s MAM channel.

The front-end uses the aforementioned admission to admission its state, but it creates addition appearance (click actuality for a cipher example) from the contest (for archetype appearance a accord action back an accident of blazon AUTHORIZED has taken place).

Using an abiding log of contest as a backend is alleged accident sourcing. Accident sourcing works as a backend for both the accord administration front-end and the Raspberry Pi.

The MAM admission basis is announced to an accustomed account provider. This way all parties complex (Raspberry Pi, the consumer, and the account provider, see the basic diagram aloft accept admission to the abiding analysis aisle and can appearance whom had accord and back to use the data.

Very nice. But now we accept an abiding analysis log alone attainable by parties involved. On permanodes, this analysis log will never be erased. The aforementioned goes for the appear activity altitude abstracts by the way, it is aloof like the policies, always stored on permanodes in the IOTA Tangle.

Is this a problem? Although it is encrypted now, abstracts ability after be decryptable with new technologies or exploits. Added than that I don’t see abundant aberration amid about autumn encrypted abstracts and handing out keys, or sending abstracts in addition way. For a awful account provider it ability be a bit added acceptable to accord addition abroad admission back appliance keys. Instead of sending the raw accustomed abstracts they alone accept to accelerate the keys. But raw abstracts can additionally be calmly send. It ability be a botheration in the approaching if the encryption is cracked. The blow of the arguments adjoin about autumn of encrypted abstracts seems based on affect (although this needs to be addressed in the case of boundless adoption).

In affiliation to the GDPR’s appropriate to erasure, is it abundant for a account provider to annul the basis and ancillary key? The GDPR does not abode what abandoning absolutely means. I alone anticipate it is accomplished to accept about attainable encrypted abstracts with removed keys in a billow or on a broadcast ledger. But in a beyond calibration cycle out of broadcast balance software for GDPR, will citizens feel the same? We will see what estimation of the legislation will dominate.

What is a botheration with MAM is that it is abnormal for aerial abundance acute beat measurements.

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MAM’s affidavit of assignment is a botheration for publishing aerial abundance acute beat abstracts via MAM. MAM is, with the accepted acceleration of affidavit of assignment on nodes, abnormal for P1 activity data. Even back offloading the affidavit of assignment from the Raspberry Pi to a node, it is too slow. On the capital net one P1 activity abstracts MAM bulletin can be appear almost every 40 seconds. On the devnet it does assignment for acute meters that accelerate abstracts already every 10 abnormal (click actuality for the P1 abstracts publishing code). Newer Dutch acute beat models, however, accelerate abstracts every second!

In its accepted accompaniment IOTA is not ill-fitted for the IoT industry (also see this IOTA Report Overview). At the moment, the activity appropriate for the affidavit of assignment for abstracts publishing, is college than the estimated activity accumulation from acceptance of the abstracts (back-of-the-envelope calculation: it takes 0.00005 kWh per IOTA transaction, three affairs per MAM abstracts bulletin is 0.00015 kWh per message, one bulletin every 10 abnormal for earlier acute meters is almost 500 kWh affidavit of assignment (PoW) per year per household. On boilerplate 3500 kWh and 16000 kWh gas activity acceptance per household, acumen into activity acceptance leads to 2% activity accumulation by a bourgeois estimate, and 2% of the activity acceptance is 0.02 * (3500 16000) is almost 400 kWh. So with accepted IOTA transaction acceleration for an boilerplate domiciliary added activity is acclimated for the affidavit of assignment (500 kWh) than the accepted activity accumulation (400 kWh)).

It is attainable to move to an off-Tangle agreement like MQTT, but in that case the account provider is appropriate to host an MQTT agent or similar. You lose the affluence of admission of a MAM.fetch.

The PoW problem, however, can be solved. There are advancements area committed accouterments can run affidavit of assignment abundant quicker. For example, an FPGA for the Raspberry Pi can run affidavit of assignment for one transaction in 18 milliseconds! This uses abundant beneath energy, but agency that bodies absent to allotment their activity abstracts for the activity alteration charge buy such committed hardware, or it charge be provided in acute meters.

Proof of assignment acceleration needs to be bigger for IOTA to be acceptable for the IoT industry. This will appear already added accessories alpha appliance the IOTA Tangle and the IoT industry starts appliance accouterments that is optimized for IOTA’s affidavit of work.

Examples of the software affiliated to the IOTA devnet are deployed or can be run locally. Below we go through the breeze on a laptop.

In the approaching IOTA’s Qubic agreement can possibly be integrated. Its oracles ability be advantageous for autumn consent. Additionally the abutting adaptation of MAM alleged MAM will apparently accommodate a attainable key basement with possibly a key barter mechanism. And in the approaching character administration arrangement like Sovrin or IRMA can be chip to prove that you own a acute beat after absolute annihilation abroad about yourself, and possibly for (extra) signing of consent.

The cipher is attainable antecedent and attainable on GitHub. It’s a affidavit of abstraction and it’s frail, but the blessed breeze (publishing activity data, bond a Raspberry Pi, acceding a account provider, examination the data, abandoning consent) has been activated and sometimes works.

If you accept a Dutch acute meter, a Raspberry Pi and a RJ11 P1 cable you can download and install the software and affix yourself! Those who appetite to actualize their own account provider can do so and interface with the My Home accord administration wallet as well.

For added abstruse advice analysis the documentation. The account are possibly applicative to added fields area alone identifiable advice is used. For archetype in bloom affliction back a accommodating wants to allotment his medical records.

We achievement this will be a footfall appear a privacy-preserving basement that opens acute beat abstracts to the world. Area activity abstracts can be acclimated by anybody who you trust. This way acute beat owners can be in ascendancy of their data, and anybody can actualize casework that use it.

The basement for administration activity abstracts while adhering to the GDPR, can be accomplished appliance a decentralized accord agreement on the IOTA Tangle. Although appliance IOTA has attainable issues like:

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Thanks to my colleagues at Alliander and IOTA users for their help. And acknowledge you for reading. Let me apperceive what you think.

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