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As accomplished beach is taken from the Lagos coastlines to accommodate apartment for burghal dwellers, the business generates abundant profits for burghal acreage developers as the beach business booms with an accretion charge for apartment for over 20 actor Lagosians. Its appulse has additionally brought anguish aloft affiliation who accept to accord with the attenuated waters, burst houses, depleted acreage and calamity incidents these activities leave in their wake.

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Valentine Iwenwanne spent bristles canicule advertisement from central Lagos littoral communities of Majidun, Oto-Awori and Ebute-Ilaje. His two-part alternation looks at beach mining operations; its abundant profits for burghal acreage developers and also, threats that hobbles agency of livelihoods in these communities.

Pains of burghal face-lifting I: The abject poor

The government of Lagos state, Nigeria’s bread-and-butter basic has aggressively spent the aftermost decade reinventing the accompaniment into a mega city. It has bedeviled its accessible relations and abreast its partnerships and burghal face-lifting projects. While on the surface, Lagos has taken on a agleam gloss, it has done so at the amount of its poor aboriginal fishing communities who are bare of their homes and their abandoned agency of livelihood. The government appropriately far hasn’t provided them with any advantage for their losses or provided another agency of survival. It has artlessly abandoned these displaced persons, casual off their adversity as the amount of burghal renewal. But experts say the government’s abolition of littoral environments and abyssal action provides concise assets which may appear with a abiding cost.

From the Third acreage arch that carries commuters circadian from the Oworonshoki arbor to the Island suburbs of Lagos, lies an ceaseless appearance of bargain houses clumsily congenital on bendable littoral banks of the Lagos Lagoon. The fetor from these trodden-down barrio are an anytime present admonition of the chic bisect that defines Lagos, and the communities that accept developed about fishing and breezy dredging of the state’s coasts. Aback Lagos began its burghal development projects, the burghal poor accept been advantageous the costs, which the about new accompaniment government has dubbed ‘Itesiwaju Eko’ lo’je wa lo’gun (Progressive Lagos is our priority) in the Yoruba language. Ebute-Ilaje is the best contempo affiliation hit by the accompaniment government’s advancing landgrabs;—it is accomplishment acreage on which a new anchorage is actuality constructed, the ambition to affix Ikorodu, Apapa, Lagos Island, Badagry, Ajah and Epe via the waterways.

Ebute-Ilaje is a affiliation in Bariga, Lagos, which has been in actuality aback 1947. Aboriginal affiliation acclimatized on the beach amplitude of the Lagos lagoon adjoining the University of Lagos and accept developed to a citizenry of over 10,000 habitants.

The beach affiliation bubbles with pockets of fishing, beach mining and dredging; their above sources of livelihood. It’s a little added than a tiny accumulating of broken-down houses and aged board boats that accept connected been abandoned, about any agitation to anyone, let abandoned the government. On Saturday, January 30, 2016—the aboriginal Ecology sanitation day in the year, the accompaniment governor, Mr. Akinwunmi Ambode in the aggregation of the state’s abettor for Beach Basement Development and some added top government functionaries visited the community. They came in the deathwatch of the government ‘taskforce’ who had accustomed suddenly, burst holes in the resident’s boats and threatened to bake bottomward the hole if they connected to assignment on the coast.

That day didn’t end as all canicule do in Ebute-Ilaje, a affiliation breadth aggregate catches a aureate calefaction admitting its fetor and trodden-down dumps.

That accidental day apparent the alpha of affliction throughout Ebute-Ilaje. It started the end of abounding lives due to the afflicted evictions and the abolition of over 262 boats. And has aback again afflicted the antecedent of alimentation of over 2,000 families.

Business no more

Before the boot started, times were acceptable for Stella Ayeolowo. A genial, sixty-year-old and mother of six, Stella says she was raking in not beneath than 6,000 Naira every anniversary from anniversary of her three ample board boats, anniversary able of accustomed 10 bags of sands—all put calm earns her 30,000 Naira every ages from trading in the humblest of commodities: sand. It may not assume abundant by Lagos standard, but Ms. Ayeolowo says it was abundant to augment her ancestors and pay academy fees.

“Before the government came, I accomplish 30,000 every month, but now, I accept annihilation to alive on. I now depend on my continued ancestors for survival. I acquisition it difficult to augment and pay my children’s academy fees.” Said Stella.

After the governor’s visit, she and her colleagues were issued a stop-work order, followed by an boot order. The government followed this with the abolition of over 262 boats finer bankrupting Ms Ayeolowo and bags of added residents. She says authoritative of anniversary of the boats costs her an estimated 700,0000 Naira. Aback then, cipher from the government has visited them to appearance accord or atone them for their losses.

Struggling to adhere on

For Celina Megboawo, 60, a mother of six children, the bouncing furnishings of the government’s acreage grab has hit home. She tells me she has absent two of her macho accouchement to ailments aback she absent her dredging business. The built-in of Ilaje in Ondo came to accomplish in Ebute-Ilaje in 1947, she migrated from Ebutte Metta breadth she aboriginal settled, fishing with her husband.

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“The sufferings are acceptable too abundant and we don’t accept any added job or business except our beach dredging business which has been taken abroad from us.”

“I accept been abandoned for the aftermost three years, I am dying of starvation, I augment abandoned already a day because there is annihilation to augment on, my boats were destroyed in 2016.” She said.

As she spoke, she paused and heaved a sigh—not a blow of abatement but of advancing memories of the accident of her two macho accouchement and her abandoned agency of income. She struggled to allege but tears had amorphous decrepit bottomward her already anemic face, she accomplished for her adhesive and wiped her tears as she mumbles.

“I couldn’t buy them drugs.”

Contrasting acutely with official lines

As at the time of my appointment to this fishing and beach affairs community, two dredging machines sit about two meters abroad from the shores of the lagoon, pumping beach appear the advancing anchorage architecture site. On the added ancillary of the arch were machines dredging and beach bushing a allocation of the Oworonshoki lagoon for bartering and residential purpose.

But is Ebute-Ilaje a beach dredging site?

Eng. Adesola Kaseem, Chairman of The United Beach Dealers Affiliation and Best Beach Nigeria Limited says Ebute-Ilaje was never a dredging site.

“Ebute-Ilaje is a beach affairs site, we paddle for 5 hours on baiter from actuality to as far as Oreta to dig our sands, and again acknowledgment the abutting day with the beach to advertise here.”

Adesola believes what the government labelled a aegis crackdown adjoin abomination is an alibi to drive them out.

“The government told us it was a aegis claiming they were aggravating to solve. They didn’t acquaint us that they are bringing development, they didn’t acquaint us that they appetite to adios us from our beach affairs site,” he says.

Adesola showed me copies of belletrist of amorous appeals that accept been accounting and exchanged amid the beach sellers through the account of a lawyer, which the Lagos government accustomed and replied through the Ministry of Beach and Basement and Development.

“On the 4th of February, we were alleged to the government secretariat in Alausa, Ikeja for a affair with the abettor for Environment, and Beach and Basement Development.”

“They told us that we should abandon the dredging armpit and I adapted that impression, it’s not a dredging site, it’s our affairs site, we go far abroad into the lagoon, about 5 hours drive on baiter from Bariga, to dig our sands.”

He additionally showed me copies of afterlife certificates of the afflicted beach sellers.

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“We accept absent 15 bodies aback the boot started; some of them developed sicknesses of all kinds and didn’t accept money to seek doctors’ action or buy drugs. We accept their afterlife certificates with us.” Adesola said as he addled through the certificates.

Also, some of the adolescence that assignment as beach diggers and transporters accept appropriately absent their jobs, abacus to Nigeria’s austere accomplishment of unemployed youths.

Even admitting Lagos has no distinct bread-and-butter assumption centre or identity, statistics appearance that it has the fifth-largest abridgement in Africa. It is the abandoned accompaniment aural Nigeria that can advance alone on its own internally generated revenue.

The history of Lagos however, shows a connected convenance of the government suppressing poor and low-income earners in the name of burghal renewal. Ebute-Ilaje is not the aboriginal littoral affiliation to abatement victim to the government’s abuse and it will not be the aftermost if this trend continues.

Not a abstract risk

In countries about the world, beach abstraction from rivers, lagoons and oceans has acquired millions of dollars in accident to infrastructure. Back mined or dredged, the sediments larboard abaft from dredging and mining sites clog up baptize channels, and all the beach removed from river banks leaves the foundations of bridges apparent and unsupported.

In Mumbai, a densely busy burghal on India’s west bank for instance, amoral mining of river beds beyond Maharashtra, decidedly abreast bridges, are assuming a grave crisis and could accept contributed to the collapse of the arch on Savitri Riverin Mahad, which claimed several lives.

It’s not aloof a abstract risk, in Lagos, best of the mechanised dredging is accident about the Carter bridge. The Carter Arch links the two behindhand of Lagos abutting Ikoyi and Victoria Island to Oworonshoki. Oworonshoki’s adjacency to the Lagoon has fabricated it a prime mining armpit for beach miners, its affluence of admission to both the Acreage and Island, conference it as a bartering hub for the architecture industry attractive to buy beach for residential and bartering use. It’s been estimated that Lagos consumes an estimated 40 actor cubic metres of beach per annum for architecture and architecture projects.

A abstraction by the Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Abyssal Research has appear that un-coordinated activities by miners and dredgers accept acquired abrasion to base of about six metres into the seabed, a prime archetype actuality the Banana Island to Third Acreage Arch axis.

Prof. Kola Adedeyo, Professor of Rural Development and Communication at the Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, says dredging of beach about bridges has a lot of abrogating association on the bridges.

“Most bridges are complete on the riverbed, so if you abide to absterge bank from locations breadth bridges are constructed, you tend to attenuate the candor of those bridges which would in acknowledgment advance to collapse.”

“Even for baptize transport, the regulators accept to booty a holistic access to set a antithesis to the ecologically acquainted environments, and additionally amusement beach dredging as an bread-and-butter controlling assemblage in the arrangement so that they can advisedly and constructively accord to both bounded and civic development.”

However, Eng. Elobi Chukwuka Collins, a civilian engineer, maintains that the appulse of beach dredging in the ambience of Lagos has to do with the absolute burden which can affect the functionality of littoral and littoral ecosystem whereby the angle and added biological bodies in the river and can additionally account a lot of displacement.

Collins added that the beach dredging bearings of Lagos has a lot of abrogating furnishings on the aerial antithesis of the littoral ecosystem, banishment the angle and added seafood in the river to migrate.

He says “when you absterge beach from the water, you agitate the accustomed debris of the littoral bed which paves way for baptize currents to gradually abrade into the foundation of bridges and buildings, authoritative them affected to collapse.”

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Collins practices hydraulics and structural and actinic engineering and currently works with the Nigeria Abrasion Watershed Management Project in Anambra Accompaniment as a consultant.

He says the Lagos beach dredging claiming is a abstraction of attributes that has been in actuality aback the time of creation.

But is it absolutely bad or amiss for Lagos to absterge mechanically from the lagoons?

Collins says it’s not absolutely bad or wrong, but it’s usually ample and actual big-ticket because it takes a lot of beach from the baptize and if not appropriately coordinated, it comes with huge abrogating appulse accidental to bread-and-butter and ecology problems.

If mechanised beach dredging charge be done, how best can we go about the dredging activities to accomplish Lagos attain its megacity status?

If Lagos charge abide with its automated way of dredging of sands, to accomplish its megacity status, how best can it be done?

The architect says able channelling of baptize afterwards dredging of sand, which creates abundant amplitude for baptize to settle, should be encouraged. He brash that sample analysis and dredging plan with amid techniques should be taken into application afore backpack out any dredging activity.

Pains of burghal face-lifting II: Fishermen at benevolence of nobody

It was 7 o’clock in the morning, the Oto-Awori lagoon ran cold. Adewale Opeseyi, 45, like abounding of his colleagues waded in, rowed his fishing baiter for a net breaking catch, actual on the Lagoon until blue-bellied clouds began to close the day. He could accomplish no agitative expedition—shoals of afraid angle were abstract him, alienated the Lagoon’s littoral amnion as whole, abstinent the fisherman a day’s bolt until affliction of annoyance began to edge into him as he toiled aimlessly on the water.

Oto-Awori is a burghal affiliation and bounded government development board breadth amid forth the Lagos-Badagry Expressway in Ojo bounded government breadth of Lagos. The fishermen of this boondocks accept been visited by behemothic rigs hoisting dredgers and mining rigs, and block abroad what is larboard of the Lagoon’s already abbreviating angle citizenry added downstream.

After some four hours of fishing, Adewale paddled his baiter aback to the Oto-Awori Jetty, I had aloof accustomed on the Jetty—armed with my camera, a tripod, baby block and a bamboo stick barometer up to 9 anxiety long. He was aloof disembarking from his baiter with a heavily patched fishing net beggared to his shoulder, and a baby artificial brazier absolute his little bolt still on his boat.

“Before the miners came, Oto-Awori apple was a abundant fishing community, we go on fishing campaign amid 6.30am and acknowledgment by 9.00am with a abundant bolt which gives us annihilation beneath than 10,000 Naira a day,” Opeseyi said.

“But aback the dredging of beach started on our water, the consequence of angle we bolt has bargain drastically, some of the genitalia of the baptize accept been dredged and as a result, we attempt to accomplish 3,000 Naira on a circadian basis. Our baptize has been polluted.”

Opeseyi was built-in a fisherman in Oto-Awori breadth he and his wife and four accouchement additionally live. He is a appreciative buyer of a baby fishing baiter which he bought from his accumulation for 60,000 Naira, he generally risks his action alike back the amnion are turbulent. Like his ancestors, he has agitated on the family’s acceptable vocation for 25 years. The ancestor of four would goes sailing for four hours and acknowledgment with a acceptable crop that fetched a acceptable amount which gives abundant balance for him and his ancestors to advance a appropriate life. But those were acceptable old canicule back his village’s lagoon was still clear by mechanised dredgers.

Valentine Iwenwanne is a Freelance Journalist based in Lagos, Nigeria. He writes about politics, conflicts, all-around bloom and development. You can acquisition him @valentineIwen on Twitter.

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