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Flexible smartphones and color-saturated television displays were some highlights at this year’s Consumer Electronics Showcase, captivated in January in Las Vegas.

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Many of those displays were fabricated appliance amoebic light-emitting diodes, or OLEDs—semiconducting films about 100 nanometers thick, fabricated of amoebic compounds and sandwiched amid two electrodes, that afford ablaze in acknowledgment to electricity. This allows anniversary alone pixel of an OLED awning to afford red, green, and blue, afterwards a backlight, to aftermath added saturated blush and use beneath energy. The blur can additionally be coated assimilate flexible, artificial substrates.

But there’s a acumen why these darlings of the exhibit are not readily accessible on shelves: They’re not actual cost-effective to accomplish en masse. Now, MIT spinout Kateeva has developed an “inkjet printing” arrangement for OLED displays—based on years of Institute research—that could cut accomplishment costs abundant to pave the way for mass-producing adjustable and large-screen models.

In accomplishing so, Kateeva aims to “fix the aftermost ‘Achilles’ heel’ of the OLED-display industry—which is manufacturing,” says Kateeva co-founder and accurate adviser Vladimir Bulovic, the Fariborz Maseeh Professor of Emerging Technology, who co-invented the technology.

Called YIELDjet, Kateeva’s technology belvedere is a massive adaptation of an inkjet printer. Large bottle or artificial substrate bedding are placed on a long, advanced platform. A basic with custom nozzles moves rapidly, aback and forth, beyond the substrate, blanket it with OLED and added materials—much as a printer drops ink assimilate paper.

An OLED assembly band consists of abounding processes, but Kateeva has developed accoutrement for two specific areas—each appliance the YIELDjet platform. The aboriginal tool, alleged YIELDjet FLEX, was engineered to accredit thin-film encapsulation (TFE). TFE is the action that gives thinness and adaptability to OLED devices; Kateeva hopes adjustable displays produced by YIELDjet FLEX will hit the shelves by the end of the year.

The additional tool, which will admission afterwards this year, aims to cut costs and defects associated with apery OLED abstracts assimilate substrates, in adjustment to accomplish bearing 55-inch screens easier.

By advocacy yields, as able-bodied as dispatch up production, abbreviation materials, and abbreviation aliment time, the arrangement aims to cut accomplishment costs by about 50 percent, says Kateeva co-founder and CEO Conor Madigan SM ’02 PhD ’06. “That aggregate of convalescent the speed, convalescent the yield, and convalescent the aliment is what accomplishment manufacturers want. Plus, the arrangement is scalable, which is absolutely important as the affectation industry accouterment to beyond substrate sizes,” he says.

The added Kateeva co-founders and technology co-inventors are MIT Provost Martin Schmidt, now a accurate advisor; Jianglong Chen SM ’03, PhD ’07, now affairs director; and Valerie Leblanc PhD ’07, now agents scientist.

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Getting flexible

TFE was invented to covering adjustable OLED screens with a barrier as solid as glass, but bendable. But it is decumbent to contagion and added issues.

Traditional TFE processing methods enclose the substrate in a exhaustion chamber, breadth a breath of the encapsulating blur is sprayed assimilate the substrate through a metal stencil. This action is apathetic and expensive—primarily because of ashen material—and requires endlessly the apparatus frequently for cleaning. There are additionally issues with defects, as the blanket that hits the alcove walls and arrangement can potentially cell off and abatement assimilate the substrate in amid abacus layers.

But moisture, and alike some air particles, can bastard into the chamber, which is baleful to OLEDs: Back electricity hits OLEDs attenuated with baptize and air particles, the consistent actinic reactions abate the OLEDs’ affection and lifespan. Any displays attenuated during accomplishment are alone and, to accomplish up for absent yield, companies addition retail prices. Only two companies now advertise OLED television displays, with 55-inch models affairs for $3,000 to $4,000—about $1,000 to $3,000 added than their 55-inch LCD and LED counterparts.

YIELDjet FLEX aims to break abounding TFE issues. A key addition is encasing the printer in a nitrogen chamber, acid acknowledgment to oxygen and moisture, as able-bodied as acid contagion with particles—notorious for abbreviating OLED yields—by 10 times over accepted methods that use exhaustion chambers. “Low-particle nitrogen is the best low-cost, apathetic ambiance you can use for OLED manufacturing,” Madigan says.

In its TFE process, the YIELDjet absolutely coats amoebic films over the affectation breadth as allotment of the TFE structure. The amoebic band flattens and smoothes the apparent to accommodate ideal altitude for depositing the consecutive layers in the TFE structure. Depositing assimilate a smooth, apple-pie apparent badly improves the affection of the TFE structure, enabling aerial yields and reliability, alike afterwards afresh coil and bending, Madigan says.

Taking off the mask

Kateeva’s added arrangement offers an advance over the acceptable exhaustion thermal dehydration (VTE) technique—usually about in the average of the assembly line—that uses adumbration masks (thin metal squares with stenciled patterns) to bead red, green, and dejected OLED abstracts assimilate a substrate.

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Much like accepted TFE processing, VTE involves agreement a substrate central a exhaustion chamber, and spraying through the adumbration affectation a breath of OLED actual in absolute patterns of red, green, and blue. But abstracts are ashen back the breath is sprayed on the affectation and chamber. Blanket the alcove and affectation can additionally advance to atom contagion as the actual flakes off, so boundless charwoman aliment is required, Madigan says.

This isn’t necessarily bad for authoritative small, smartphone screens: “If a substrate area with, say, 100 baby displays on its apparent has bristles defects, you may bung five, and all the blow are perfect,” Madigan explains. And abate adumbration masks are added reliable.

But manufacturers alpha to lose money back they’re casting one or two large-screen displays due to atom contagion or defects beyond the substrate.

Kateeva’s system, which, like its TFE system, is amid in a nitrogen chamber, absolutely positions substrates—large abundant for six 55-inch displays—beneath book heads, which accommodate hundreds of nozzles. These nozzles are acquainted to bead tiny aerosol of OLED actual in exact locations to actualize the display’s pixels. “Doing this over three layers removes the charge for adumbration masks at beyond scales,” Madigan says.

As with its YIELDjet FLEX system, Madigan says this YIELDjet artefact for OLED TV displays can advice manufacturers save added than 50 percent over acceptable methods. In January, Kateeva partnered with Sumitomo, a arch OLED-materials supplier, to added optimize the arrangement for aggregate production.

Revolutionizing at MIT

The abstraction for Kateeva started in the aboriginal 2000s at MIT. Over several years, Madigan, Bulovic, Schmidt, Chen, and Leblanc had become complex in a affiliation with Hewlett-Packard (HP) on a activity to accomplish printable electronics.

They had developed a array of methods for accomplishment OLEDs—which Madigan had been belief back his undergraduate years at Princeton University. Added labs at that time were aggravating to accomplish OLEDs added activity efficient, or colorful, or durable. “But we capital to do article absolutely altered that would accommodate the industry, because that’s what we should be accomplishing in a abode like MIT,” Madigan says.

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Soon, however, HP pulled out of the project. “That larboard all this atypical bookish acreage sitting on a shelf that may never be acclimated again,” Bulovic says. Instead of absolution those patents go to waste, however, the advisers launched Kateeva in 2008 to commercially accouterment OLED manufacturing.

A few years before, Bulovic had cut his teeth in the startup arena with QD Vision—which is currently developing quantum-dot technology for LED television displays—and was able to affix the accumulation with bounded adventure capitalists.

Madigan, on the added hand, was cutting his ambitious abilities at the MIT Sloan School of Management. Amid added things, the Entrepreneurship Lab chic alien him to the basics and bolts of startups, including chump accretion and talking to investors. And Addition Teams helped him abstraction markets and architecture articles for chump needs. “There was no handbook, but I benefitted a lot from those two classes,” he says.

In 2009, aloof back OLEDs were starting to accretion boilerplate popularity, Kateeva launched T-Jet, a forerunner to YIELDjet. In that system, nozzles would bead OLED abstracts assimilate a plate, categorical with a assertive pattern. The bowl was acrimonious to 100 degrees Celsius to dry the ink, brought abutting to the substrate afterwards affecting it, and acrimonious to 300 C to alteration the dry, blooming breath assimilate the substrate. “It was a air-conditioned concept, but inkjet was still cheaper,” Madigan says.

So in 2012, Kateeva pivoted, switching apparatus to its YIELDjet system. Today, the arrangement is a platform, Bulovic says, that, in the future, can be tweaked to book solid date lighting panels, solar cells, nanostructure circuits, and bright concentrators, amid added things. “All those would be enabled by the semiconductor printer Kateeva has been able to develop,” he says. “OLED displays are aloof the aboriginal application.”

Explore further: Kateeva announces YIELDjet—technique for press OLEDs cheaper

This adventure is republished address of MIT Account (, a accepted armpit that covers account about MIT research, addition and teaching.

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