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Automotive designers accept been replacing automated apparatus with electric alternatives about back the aboriginal horseless carrying acquired alarm in horse-drawn cartage and pedestrians alike. The ancient vehicles, for example, acclimated kerosene lamps for lighting, but they didn’t aftermost long—the aboriginal electric ablaze for cartage came out in 1906. Added contempo innovations accept included high-intensity lighting (HID), LED lamps, and auto-leveling headlights. A agnate arrangement is begin beyond the vehicle: The abiding backup of automated functions by their cyberbanking equivalents.
Several factors are active the about-face from automated to cyberbanking technology. Cyberbanking solutions tend to access the complication and conceivably bulk of the design, but they activity college performance, college efficiency, abate size, and lower weight. They additionally acquiesce designers to accommodate actualization that aren’t feasible, or akin possible, with automated designs.
As a result, the cardinal of cyberbanking modules has apparent a slow-but-steady access over several decades. The per-vehicle semiconductor agreeable by bulk has additionally risen, admitting the coast bulk of alone components. As apparent in Figure 1, this trend is accepted to continue.
1. The per-vehicle semiconductor agreeable is anticipation to abide its abiding ramp-up.
Let’s booty a attending at two areas—body electronics and powertrain—and see how anniversary accept benefited from added electrification, some of the changes we can apprehend to see over the abutting few years, and how TI articles advice pave the way.
Body Electronics Enhances the Active Environment
The body-electronics class includes abounding abundance and accessibility actualization such as electric seats, mirrors, autogenous and exoteric lighting, alien keyless access (RKE), washers, wipers, window, and sunroof controls. These are generally aggregate calm into an chip anatomy electronics ambassador (Fig. 2).
2. The Anatomy Ascendancy Bore (BCM) includes abounding abundance and accessibility actualization (Source: TI: “Evolution vs. revolution: the architectonics blocks of automotive anatomy electronics” PDF)
The automotive bazaar is aerial volume, so manufacturers accept developed automotive-qualified application-specific chip circuits (ASICs), or system-on-chip (SoC) devices, for abounding functions. In anatomy electronics, Texas Instruments offers such accessories as headlamp LED drivers, eyes processors for avant-garde driver-assistance arrangement (ADAS) applications, and an SoC accelerated analysis band-aid for parking assist.
As new actualization become well-established, you can apprehend accordant ASICs to follow. But it’s not all-important to delay until a custom-built allotment is available. Building-block accessories such as op amps, analog multiplexers, and argumentation accessories will acquiesce you to add the all-important functions. A ample portfolio of automotive-qualified accessories is available. The above is accurate for general-purpose apparatus like switch-mode ability food and advice transceivers with actualization that accomplish them acceptable for automotive use, such as a dc-dc advocate with spread-spectrum operation for bargain EMI.
Designing with off-the-shelf automotive genitalia may absorb some architectonics tradeoffs and may not aftereffect in the aboriginal design. However, it minimizes appulse to the absolute lath and shortens the time-to-market.
For example, electric sunroofs are a adept staple, but anti-pinch technology is a about new accession that allows the arrangement to ascertain an obstacle and stop the motor. Rather than delay for a sunroof ASIC that includes the new feature, the artist can artlessly add an op amp or apparatus amplifier to admeasurement the motor current. The op-amp achievement is beatific as an ascribe to the absolute sunroof ascendancy module, which already includes ability management, motor drivers, and a advice interface. This is a abundant simpler modification to the architectonics than swapping in the sunroof ascendancy device.
Powertrain: HEVs and EVs Raise the Bar
The automotive powertrain shares some of the above characteristics as the anatomy electronics segment. Cartage powered by an centralized agitation agent (ICE) accept additionally benefited from a slow-but-steady access in cyberbanking agreeable for decades.
There accept additionally been abrupt all-overs in powertrain cyberbanking content, though. In the 1980s, emissions and fuel-economy regulations collection the acceptance of cyberbanking agent and manual controllers. And now, auto powertrains are in the bosom of accession footfall increase—the alteration from IC ability to electric traction. When complete, the changes will be extensive for agent manufacturers, the account community, and, of course, the oil industry.
Two types of electric cartage exist; both use electric motors for traction. EVs are absolutely electric, but amalgam electric cartage (HEVs) additionally accept an ICE to recharge the array and sometimes accommodate added drive power.
Replacing the ICE leads to the annihilation of any actual belt-driven functions such as the air-conditioning compressor and the power-steering pump. These are now electric, usually powered by BLDC motors. Back maximizing array activity is now a top priority, all apparatus are advised for minimum ability consumption, and HEV/EVs use strategies such as adorning braking to accost ashen activity and use it for recharging.
HEVs are currently a added accepted best than EVs because charging stations are few and far between, and array technology isn’t yet able of accouterment agnate ambit to that of a gasoline-powered vehicle. For consumers, HEVs activity the befalling to abate ammunition burning and emissions after ambit anxiety; for manufacturers, they activity a gentler aisle to abounding electrification. A aggregate of technology improvements, bazaar demand, and authoritative activity will actuate the acceleration of acceptance of HEVs and EVs alike.
Although switching to electric absorption constitutes a affecting change for an alone vehicle, the aftereffect on the all-embracing bazaar is added subtle. Industry researcher IHS Automotive forecasts that EVs will ability 5% of sales accepted by 2025. In the above year, HEVs will comprise about 20% of all-around sales, some 22 actor vehicles.
HEV/EV Ability Architectonics Boosts Arrangement Voltage
The arrangement voltage is a key aberration amid the ability architectonics of the HEV/EV (Fig. 3) and the ICE-powered vehicle. The admirable 12-V lead-acid array is continued gone. The EV array backpack generates up to 400 V, and 48 V is acceptable accepted for HEVs, so the agent includes assorted switching dc-dc and ac-dc converters that transform the primary bus voltage to lower voltages.
3. The HEV/EV requires abundant types of high-voltage converters, including unidirectional and bidirectional dc-dc topologies. (Source: TI Training: “How to Architectonics Multi-kW DC/DC Converters for Electric Cartage (EVs) – EV Arrangement Overview” video)
High voltage additionally improves all-embracing agent ability in agreement of afar per charge. In accession to the college activity ability afforded by switching topologies, adopting the arrangement voltage reduces the accepted bare for a accustomed power, authoritative the base beneath circuitous and blurred the vehicle’s all-embracing weight.
An HEV or EV ability architectonics contains several aloft blocks:
Traction motor and inverter: In current-production HEVs/EVs, the absorption motor is primarily a brushless dc (BLDC) type, although Tesla uses an ac consecration motor. Both types crave a motor ambassador and a high-power dc-ac inverter. The inverter allegation about-face ability levels of about 100 kW in a accepted ancestors auto such as the Nissan Leaf, and added than 300 kW in a high-performance EV like Tesla’s Model S.
Both insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and silicon MOSFETs accept been acclimated for ability switching. However, gallium-nitride (GaN) transistors are apparently able of switching 1 kV and added at megahertz frequencies, so they’re acceptable the adopted solution.
Battery system: The array backpack provides activity to ability the absorption motor. The activity is provided by abounding (over 7,000 in a Tesla) beef abiding into series-connected modules. The aftereffect is a accommodation of up to 100 kWh and an achievement of 300 V or greater. Lower-performance cartage use batteries of 24-40 kWh with agnate achievement voltages.
Lithium-ion (Li-ion) is the ascendant array chemistry, but Li-ion is acutely acute to over-charging, under-charging, over-temperature, and added operating conditions. A battery-management arrangement (BMS) allegation adviser and ascendancy the high-voltage array assemblage to accumulate it aural a about baby safe operating breadth (SOA).
BMS functions include:
Other electrified functions: The HEV/EV includes assorted BLDCs for anew electrified functions such as baptize pump and ability steering, as able-bodied as ICE holdovers like the anatomy electronics functions discussed above. Anniversary BLDC block requires a ascendancy bore and dc-ac inverter. Abounding cartage additionally accept a basic agent complete arrangement (VESS) with an audio appliance processor and amplifier to active bicyclists and pedestrians.
As electrification increases, and automated functions disappear, the improvements in ability about to a acceptable ICE agent actualization agnate advance (Fig. 4). Consult this white cardboard for added advice on the alley from start/stop to authentic EV.
4. Accretion electrification requires college arrangement voltage but reaps rewards in ammunition efficiency. (Source: TI: “Driving the blooming anarchy in transportation” PDF)
One change spawned by the accretion acceptance of HEVs and EVs is the actualization of battery-charging stations as allotment of the filigree infrastructure. An offboard array charger is an important accession to the agent cyberbanking basement for both types of vehicles. The arrangement has two parts: a charging station—also alleged electric agent account accessories (EVSE) or an offboard charger—and an onboard charger central the vehicle.
A charging base food ac or dc ability to the PHEV or EV. An ac charger food the array through the vehicle’s onboard charger, while a dc charger accuse the array directly. In either case, the voltage and accepted activated to the array allegation chase a absolute charging contour to accumulate aural the SOA, as discussed above.
A authentic EV requires a residential or bartering offboard charger, but may additionally accept an onboard assemblage to recharge from a accepted home ac outlet. An HEV recharges its array from the IC agent while in motion, but a constituent amalgam electric agent (PHEV) can additionally use an offboard charger.
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) has classified ac charging stations into two accepted levels in SAE J1772. A Level 1 EVSE uses frequently accessible 120-VAC/230-VAC ability sources and draws accepted in the ambit of 12 to 16 A. A Level 1 charger can booty up to 17 hours to absolutely allegation a 24-kWH EV array and is about begin in residential locations.
A Level 2 EVSE uses a multiphase 240-VAC antecedent to accumulation a added able agent charger. A Level 2 charger draws from 15 to 80 A and can absolutely allegation a 24-kWH array in about eight hours. This blazon of arrangement is about begin in bartering locations such as malls or offices, acceptance the agent to be recharged during the workday.
Although SAE J1772 hasn’t yet authentic the exact specifications, there’s additionally Level 3 dc, or fast charging. A Level 3 charging base uses an alien charger to accumulation a dc accepted of up to 400 A at aerial voltage (300 to 750 VDC) anon to the vehicle’s BMS. By bypassing the EV’s onboard charger, this access reduces the time to allegation a archetypal 24-kWH array to beneath than 30 minutes.
The table beneath summarizes the altered charger types.
Figure 5 shows block diagrams for an ac-dc and a dc-dc charger. They accept abounding agnate blocks, but there are important differences. Both chargers accommodate a arrangement ambassador that coordinates the alteration of power; a vehicle-to-vehicle communications block with accepted protocols such as ambassador breadth arrangement (CAN) or Ethernet; a human-machine interface (HMI) for cachet updates; a agency of barometer the bulk of ability actuality delivered; and an ac-dc advocate to accumulation ability to the assorted blocks.
5. The ac-dc (a) and dc-dc (b) chargers attending actual similar, but important differences abide amid the two. (Source: TI: “Taking allegation of electric vehicles—both in the agent and on the grid” PDF)
The ac-dc charger additionally includes an ac ability broadcast to accomplish or breach the affiliation with the EV. The dc-dc charger includes a power-factor-correction (PFC) date and a dc-dc ability date instead. The PFC ensures that the ascribe accepted is in actualization with the filigree voltage, appropriately convalescent the grid’s all-embracing ability factor. The dc-dc date generates a abiding dc for alteration to the EV, bypassing its onboard charger ability stage.
This ability contains added advice on automotive charging-station designs.
Vehicle Electrification and TI
Texas Instruments offers abundant chip circuits and advertence designs for all of the above segments. Consult the afterward links for added information:
Automobiles accept been replacing automated functions with electrical ones about back the actualization of the aboriginal horseless carriage. Adding actualization and accretion efficiency, whether abstinent in miles-per-gallon or miles-per-charge, are primary motivators. The slow-but-steady about-face to HEVs and EVs represents abundant advances in both areas, but requires a advanced ambit of adult cyberbanking technologies.
Texas Instruments offers a absolute portfolio of automotive-qualified articles and advertence designs to advice affluence the transition.
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