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Written By: Franklin C. Annis, EdD

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For about as continued as the it existed, the U.S. Army has attempted to body a aesthetics of aggressive leadership. The aggressive has committed all-inclusive assets in compassionate what abundant leaders should “be, know, and do”. In fact, the all-inclusive majority of all analysis into aggressive administration apropos the qualities that acceptable leaders display.[1] Unfortunately by agreement the accent of scholarship on what acceptable leaders are, the U.S. Aggressive has about absolutely abandoned the action on how an abandoned becomes a acceptable leader. This is accepting an added abrogating affect on aggressive leaders as the acceleration and complication of warfare continues to increase.

It is not acceptable to artlessly abstraction what acceptable leaders “be, know, and do” to actualize an educational arrangement that could carbon the successes of the abundant aggressive leaders in American history. The Army charge advance a solid educational aesthetics to actualize a “culture of learning” and accommodate the accoutrement bare to consistently advance abandoned administration abilities. Until this occurs, we will proverbially abide to “build a alcazar on a foundation of sand”, as we admonishment our Soldiers for not acting added like Patton or Eisenhower due to our own failures to explain how Patton or Eisenhower became abundant leaders. If we body a solid educational aesthetics into the Army Baton Development Model, we could accord our Soldiers the missing “road map” to explain how to get from “Point A” (their accepted administration skills) to “Point B” (the acclimatized traits, abilities, and abilities aural our administration philosophy).

In October 2017, the Army arise already afresh that it would alter the Non-Commissioned Officer Apprenticeship Arrangement (NCOES) and carbon the Army’s administration chiral (Field Chiral 6–22). The above catechism charcoal is if the Army will abide to avoid educational philosophy. Will we echo the mistakes of the accomplished and abode all our accent on the acclimatized end accompaniment and leave a burst educational aesthetics in abode that will accomplish addition afterlight assured in the short-term? Or will we body a able educational aesthetics that will change our adeptness and drive battlefield addition and administration abilities for ancestors to come?

The Problematic Analogue of Self-Development with the Army Baton Development Model

Unfortunately, failures in establishing constant definitions aural the Army Baton Development Archetypal and creating acknowledging abstracts for the pillars/domains of baton development accept bedeviled the Army for decades. This is best adverse in the breadth of self-development. The Army continues to attempt in accouterment a complete and constant analogue of this analytical aspect of the Army Baton Development Model.

In Table 1, you can acutely see the consistently alive analogue of self-development. With a abridgement of a acutely authentic analogue of the abstraction of self-development, it should arise as no abruptness that this abstraction is blurred aural our ranks. The art of self-development is analytical in alive addition on the battlefield. While both the operational and institutional area of the Army Baton Development Archetypal (ALDM) accommodate Soldiers with administration abilities and abilities, it does so in a abundantly uniformed nature. If anybody is acquirements the aforementioned things through agnate adventures and identical education, why would we anytime achievement to accept that this access would advance avant-garde leaders? It is the area of self-development that allows leaders to advance themselves to abode their specific claimed adorning needs and situational requirements. Since acquirements through self-development is not preprogramed, a high-degree of about-face occurs. As a result, self-developed leaders accompany the assortment of anticipation that is acclimatized to drive battlefield innovation. Given the accent of self-development on administration abilities, the Army educational aesthetics should be accounting to acutely ascertain and absolutely abutment this analytical activity.

Given that aggressive apprenticeship aesthetics was abundantly congenital on top of the access of Andragogy (adult education) developed by Dr. Malcom Knowles, it has consistently afraid me that the Army has not activated his abstraction of “self-directed learning” as the archetypal for Army self-development. Knowles authentic self-directed acquirements as:

[A] action in which an abandoned takes the initiative, with or after the advice of others, in diagnosing their acquirements needs, formulating acquirements goals, anecdotic animal and absolute assets for learning, allotment and implementing acclimatized acquirements strategies, and evaluating acquirements outcomes.[2]

In all the Army adviser courses I accept attended, from Army Basic Adviser Advance (ABIC) to Small Group Adviser Training Advance (SGITC), it was bright that the basal student-centered acquirements models activated in Army apprenticeship area congenital on the access of Andragogy. However, the Army hasn’t absolutely accepted the Knowles aesthetics by excluding his abstraction of self-directed learning. This took a complete and awful anatomic educational aesthetics and alien a alarming abandoned that destabilized the accomplished philosophy. What we accept been larboard with is a abandoned abounding by a consistently alive analogue of Army self-development that lacks the accoutrement and abstracts to abutment the development of Army leaders.

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In my argument study, I surveyed assorted Lieutenant Colonels apropos the affair of Army Self-Development. This admirers bidding a far college aplomb in Knowles’ analogue of self-directed acquirements than the analogue of Army self-development presented in DA Pam 350–58.[3] Knowles’ analogue had a beggarly account of 4.13 in allegory to the DA Pam 350–58 account of 3.5 (on a 5-point Likert calibration with 1 apery acerb disagree and 5 apery acerb agree).[4] The abandoned advocacy on how to advance Knowles’ analogue that came from this analysis was to accomplish the absolute absolute by abacus the claus that self-development requires a connected aeon of appraisal and reassessment.[5]

I alarm on the Army to acutely ascertain and accommodate acceptable acknowledging abstracts for the abstraction of self-development in adjustment to adjustment and complete a unified educational aesthetics for the U.S. Army. It would be my advocacy to acknowledgment to the theories of Malcolm Knowles and absolutely advance his access of Andragogy to accommodate his abstraction of self-directed learning. This would not abandoned accommodate the abiding analogue and abstraction of self-development that is acclimatized to body affection Army leaders, but it would additionally accomplish volumes of noncombatant abstract and analysis on self-directed acquirements accessible to aggressive learners.

Problems with the FM 6–22

With the FM 6–22[6] actuality the best common doctrinal advice on administration that Soldiers encounter, it is a abashment the accepted copy presents so abounding flaws. The best cogent blemish of this chiral is that it does not present the Army Baton Development Model. Shouldn’t any chiral that presents advice on Army administration activate with the agency a Soldier should go about acquirements the art of leadership? While we do present the ALDM in the DA PAM 350–58, how abounding inferior Soldiers would go hunting for this advice in an abstruse reference? The Army needs to ensure the “how to learn” (educational philosophy) is presented alongside “what to learn” (Army administration philosophy) if we ambition to aerate the administration development aural our Soldiers.

The abutting above blemish in the accepted FM 6–22 is that it presents a burst analysis system. In Table 2–3,[7] several adorning opportunities are disconnected into the categories of formal, semi formal, and informal. I accept accent the above absurdity in this table as self-development cannot be formally driven. There should accept never been a “formal” class of self-development (i.e. “structed self-development”) as annihilation that could fit aural this class would additionally abatement beneath the analogue of bookish education. To not adulterate the accurate purpose and accent of self-development, a bookish class for self-development should accept never been created. If the Army had acclimatized Knowles’ complete access of Andragogy or had a anatomic educational aesthetics of its own, this absurdity would accept been absurd to accept occurred.

The Heart of the Problem

While I do accept the three pillar/domain access of operational, institutional, and self-development accommodate an able abstraction of baton development, I accept these pillars/domains accept been larboard ill-defined. To arise to a bigger analogue and abstraction of baton development, we charge not ascertain these pillars/domains by the types of activities that are affianced in but rather the absorbed of the acquirements activity.

I believed the baton development archetypal arise in the 1994 copy of the DA PAM 350–58[8] to be the easiest to accept (Figure 1). While the agreement of the archetypal accept hardly changed, there is bright accent that a baton develops through these three activities. I would acclaim that we try to acknowledgment to a archetypal that is as simple and bright as this one.

The latest adaptation of the Army Baton Development Archetypal arise in the latest copy of the DA PAM 350–58 (Figure 2) is far added complex.[9] In fact, it is so circuitous that alike I as an educational theorist accept problems deciphering the model. Honestly, did the agreement education, experience, and training absolutely charge to arise in four altered locations on this graphic? This bright bootless because it attempted to affectation the agency of accepting adeptness forth with the absorbed of the learning. The Army would accept been far bigger served befitting these two concepts separate.

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The added above botheration in this amount is that the “domains” of operational, institutional, and self-development overlap. While I would advance the absolute account of this diagram would affectation how these three concepts could be accomplished at the aforementioned time, some may misread this to betoken a distinct action could be accompanying in added than one domain. This may accept started the problems activate aural the Structured Self-Development courses cerebration they could accomplish both the functions of self-development and apprenticeship at the aforementioned time.

Solving the Problem

If we are to break the abashing about the Army Baton Development Archetypal and actualize a anatomic educational philosophy, we should aboriginal activate by acutely and artlessly defining the pillars/domains aural this model. The three basal concepts of operational experience, institutional training, and self-development present a solid and complete foundation for this archetypal if authentic correctly. The aboriginal footfall to acclimation our accepted bearings is to ensure these pillars/domains are authentic about the “intent” of the training, experience, or apprenticeship and not by the action of learning. In added words, the architecture of the acquirements (classroom, online, experiential, etc.) wouldn’t behest area these activities are activate aural the model.

First, I would ascertain Operational Acquaintance as any acquirements that occurs “on the job”. For example, you apprentice how to be a (insert administration position) by accomplishing the job. In essence, band leaders hone the art of administration as a band baton by accomplishing the job and action in this role in aggregate training. This is the aforementioned with all administration positions. To actuate what administration positions are required/recommended to advance through the ranks, Admiral should argue the DA PAM 600–3[10] and NCOs should argue the DA PAM 600–25.[11]

Secondly, I would ascertain Institutional Training as any acquirements acquaintance afar from “on the job” training that is acclimatized by law, regulation, policy, or absolute order. This acquirements can action through assorted altered acquirements commitment methods from noncombatant institutions to aggressive schoolhouses and from acceptable classrooms to online training. The Institutional Training pillar/domain could additionally be alive throughout the assorted levels of command, from HQDA acute assertive training advance for advance to bounded commanders that appetite their Soldiers to apprehend specific books.

Finally, I would ascertain Self-Development as the autonomous accomplishments of an abandoned to appoint in acquirements activities to abode claimed weaknesses or accretion new adeptness alfresco what had been directed by the Army. This pillar/domain is about all the acquirements adventures alfresco what the aggressive is acute Soldiers to apprentice and the operational environments the Army is agreement Soldiers in. This acquirements would be Soldier driven, although peers, subordinates, and leaders could acclaim areas that the Soldier may appetite to assignment on and assorted methods to utilize. If possible, it would be best to ascertain this abstraction through Malcolm Knowles’ access of self-directed learning.

This colonnade would be larboard “unscripted” compassionate that any acquirements activities that commanders absolute would abatement aural the Institutional pillar/domain. The ultimate ambition of this pillar/domain would be to advise Soldiers to baddest acquirements activities over non-learning opportunities. In added words, we appetite to advance our Soldiers to be readers and to accept to absorb a allocation of their chargeless time agreeable in a acquirements action instead of beneath advantageous activities.[12]

While this adeptness complete ambagious at first, we cannot artlessly allocate one advance of training affairs as allotment of any pillar/domain. This goes aback to the compassionate that the pillars/domains are disconnected by absorbed and not the absolute acquirements activity. For example, a Health Care Specialist (68W) commutual the National Registry Emergency Medical Technician — Basic Advance is agreeable in the Institutional pillar/domain as this advance is a claim of their Aggressive Occupational Specialty (MOS). But let us say there is an Advice Technology Specialist (25B) assigned to a medical unit. He decides to booty the aforementioned advance so he could abetment in the accident of a accumulation blow event. His assurance in this advance would be advised agreeable in Self-Development because there is no claim for him to complete this course. The 25B is diversifying and accretion his capabilities above apprehension and this is the blazon of action we should be auspicious as leaders.

A New Archetypal to Graphically Affectation the Baton Development Model

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I accept spent ample time cerebration of the best way to graphically affectation the interactions amid the pillars/domains of Operational, Institutional, and Self-development. I accomplished that all three of these acquirements intents are acclimatized to be an able baton and all three of these intents appulse the capability of anniversary other. So, my aboriginal anticipation for a new archetypal of Army baton development would be that of a three-legged stool. This comes from the compassionate that a three-legged stool doesn’t “wobble” because all three legs abutment the weight of the stool. This is accurate alike if all three legs are of altered acme (which could represent the time committed to anniversary pillar/domain). However, the anticipation of a stool actuality acclimated as a archetypal for Army baton development isn’t a actual adventurous angle so I charge chase further.

Hopefully the abstraction of a tripod would be accepted by best Soldiers. Anniversary leg of the tripod would betoken anniversary of the acquirements intents of Operational Assignments, Institutional Training, and Self-Development (Figure 3). In this model, it would be asserted that the acme of tripod would accord with administration abilities, with greater acme equaling greater ability. As we acclimatize the time and acquired accomplishment in anniversary of these acquirements intents, it becomes bright the best way of access administration abilities is to accept a counterbalanced access amid operational, institutional, and self-development acquirements (Figure 4).

An bookish that spends his accomplished activity belief Army courses with no operational acquaintance is absurd to advance their administration abilities (Figure 5).

The aforementioned could be said about a baton with all-inclusive amounts of operational acquaintance that spends no time acclamation his administration weaknesses through self-development (Figure 6).

The best of our leaders are ones that accept affluent operational experience, accept abstruse the philosophies and approaches offered aural institutional training and accept affianced in self-development to drive addition and abode claimed weaknesses.


If our Soldiers are to boss the avant-garde battlefield, they charge be able to acclimate and innovate faster than their adversary. The acceleration and technology of warfare is anytime access and banishment inferior leaders to accomplish choices that acreage brand admiral would accept fabricated 60 years go.[13] The accomplishments of alike our inferior leaders are accepting cardinal impacts on both the success of campaigns and National Security.[14] The all-inclusive access in the roles and responsibilities of inferior leaders in the Continued War demands a greater akin of alertness to ensure these leaders will be acknowledged in their assigned missions. Our accepted bearing of Army leaders needs to be not abandoned chatty with aggressive tasks but additionally able in areas such as burghal management, economics, diplomacy, psychology, and advice and acumen administration to action finer on the battlefield and in post-conflict zones.[15]

We charge deathwatch up and apprehend that our aggressive is adverse abeyant aggressive conflicts on at atomic three altered continents. We are threatened to action in a advanced ambit of action from nuclear war to cyber warfare. With bound training time available, the charge for a solid educational aesthetics that has the adeptness to drive our baton development and emphasizes self-development has become added important. We artlessly do not accept abundant time to alternation Soldiers in all accessible outcomes.


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The charge for a solid educational aesthetics aural the Army can no best be ignored. We charge leaders that are able learners. The attributes of avant-garde warfare will never acquiesce us to altogether acclimate for the abutting war. Army leaders charge bound acclimate cadre and accessories advised for the aftermost war to not abandoned accommodated but beat the needs of the accepted conflict. With abandoned so abundant time accessible for training, it will be added absurd to alternation our Soldiers accurately for the abutting conflict. So, we charge do our best to advise them how to bound analyze weaknesses, actuate area to acquisition the acclimatized knowledge, and how to bound apprentice this new absolute to be able to outdistance their opponents. While the art of self-development has consistently been a basic affection in abundant aggressive leaders (e.g. Pershing, Eisenhower, Patton, Mattis,..), we will abandoned see the charge for self-developing leaders access as warfare continues to evolve.

Check out Franklin’s agnate YouTube Video at Evolving Warfighter!

Franklin C. Annis holds a Doctorate in Apprenticeship (EdD) from Northcentral University. He is currently assigned as the Deputy Accompaniment Surgeon for the Nebraska Army National Guard. He additionally created the YouTube approach “Evolving Warfighter” that presents abstracts on how to advance administration through Self-Development. The angle bidding in this commodity are the author’s abandoned and do not reflect the official position of the Nebraska Army National Guard, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

[1] Todd Maurer & Michael Lippstreu, Self-Initiated development of administration capabilities: Toward establishing the authority of key motivational constructs and appraisal tools. U.S. Army Analysis Institute for the Behavioral and Social Science, 2010

[2] Malcom Knowles, Self-directed learning: A adviser for learners and teachers. Association Press, 1975, p. 18

[3] Headquarters Department of the Army, Department of Army Pamphlet 350–58; Training: Army baton development program, Government Printing Office, 2013

[4] Franklin Annis, Clarifying the Definition, Techniques, and Integration of Self-Development to Enhance Army Officer Baton Development, Self-Published, 2016, pp. 115–117.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Headquarters Department of the Army, Acreage Chiral (FM) 6–22; Baton Development, Government Printing Office, 2015.

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[7] Ibid, 2–12.

[8] Headquarters, Department of the Army, Department of the Army Pamphlet 350–58; The constant legacy: Baton development for America’s Army, Government Printing Office, 1994.

[9] Headquarters Department of the Army, Department of Army Pamphlet 350–58; Training: Army baton development program, Government Printing Office, 2013

[10] Headquarters Department of the Army, Department of Army Pamphlet 600–3; Commissioned Officer Professional Development and Career Management, Government Printing Office, 2014.

[11] Headquarters Department of the Army, Department of Army Pamphlet 600–25; U.S. Army Noncommissioned Officer Professional Development Guide, Government Printing Office, 2008.

[12] Michael Ponton, M. Gail Derrick & Paul Carr, P. B. The Relationship Amid Resourcefulness and Persistence in Developed Autonomous Learning. Developed Apprenticeship Quarterly, 55(2), 2005, p. 126

[13] David Hill, Inferior Officer Institutional Administration Education: Is the Basic Officer Administration Advance (BOLC) Meeting the Challenge? U.S. Army War College, 2008.

[14] Stephen Van Riper, Training & Apprenticeship Appulse on 2020 Officer Career Progression, 2006, Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a508220.pdf

[15] William Linn, Officer development: A abreast roadmap, 2008, Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a485472.pdf; Stephen Van Riper, Training & Apprenticeship Appulse on 2020 Officer Career Progression, 2006, Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a508220.pdf

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